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TLATE T. 



THE 



COMMON MOTHS OF 
ENGLAND 



REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A., F.L.S. etc. 

AUTHOR OF "COMMON OBJECTS ON THE SEA-SHORE," "ILLUSTRATED 
NATURAL HISTORY," ETC. ETC 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS 
BY E. SMITH, T. IV. WOOD, AXD If S. COLE.MAX 



LONDON 
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS 

THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE 
NEW YORK : 416 BROOME STREET 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLTJME. 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES. By W. S. Coi.eman. 

BRITISH BIRDS' EGGS AND NESTS. By the 
Rev. J. C. Atkinson. 

BRITISH MOTHS. By the Rev. J. G. Wood. 

COMMON BRITISH BEETLES. By the Rev. 
J. G. Wood. 



PREFACE. 

This little work is intended merely as an intro- 
duction to that department of Entomology of 
which it treats. 

The Moths of England are so numerous, that 
the mere mention of the names and synonyms of 
all the species would fill the entire book. It 
is necessary, therefore, to make a selection of 
them, and this has been done so that the young 
Entomologist will find in the following pages a 
figure and description of nearly every Moth that 
he is likely to find. As a rule, the commonest 
and most conspicuous species have been selected; 
and although one or two of the rarer Moths are 
mentioned, it is because they are too important 
to be omitted. 

Throughout the whole of the book I have 
endeavoured to keep in mind the sort of instruc- 
tion which I needed when beginning the study 
of Entomology without any guide whatever, and 
I trust that this little work will supply to my 
successors the help which I so greatly needed ir 
times now past. 



ADDENDUM. 

The following description was accidentally 
knitted, and should have been inserted immedi- 
ately after the account of the Clouded Magpie 
Moth on page Gl : — 

On Plate VI. fig. 3, is seen the delicate little 
Clouded Border Moth (Lomaspilis marginata), 
represented of the natural size. 

The upper wings of this very common Moth 
are white, and are edged with grey-black borders 
as shown in the figure. Beside the dark border, 
there are other dark lines and marks upon the 
wings ; but as scarcely two specimens are exactly 
alike, no detailed description can be given. 

The larva of this insect feeds on the willow, 
and is olive-green, marked with longitudinal 
white or yellow stripes. The Moth is seen 
throughout the end of spring, up to the begin- 
ning of autumn. 



THE 

COMMON MOTHS OF ENGLAND. 



CHAPTER I. 

NOCTURNI. 

As I desire to give an intelligible and popular 
account of the Moths which are most generally to 
be found in this country, I shall describe them 
as simply as possible, giving a short account of 
their appearance and habits, and shall render 
the whole of the scientific portion of the work 
as little obtrusive as possible. 

Some account of this dry scientific techni- 
cality is absolutely necessary, but it has been 
considerably simplified, and, when aided by 
the accompanying illustrations, the reader will 
find no great difficulty in it. Moreover, he will 
possess that which I earnestly desired when 
I first began the study of insects, namely, an 
easy introduction to works of a more strictly 
scientific character. 

It will be as well to preface that the order of 
insects called Lepidoptera, to which the Moths 
belong, is distinguished by the feathery scales 
which cover their wings. They pass through 
three distinct changes of form after they quit 

8 



I EYED HAWK MOTH. 

the egg : firstly, the larva or caterpillar ; secondly, 
the pupa, or chrysalis, or aurelia, as it is called ; 
and lastly the imago, or perfect insect. All these 
characteristics are common both to the Moths 
and Butterflies, but the young naturalist will 
have no difficulty in distinguishing between 
these great divisions of the Lepidoptera, if he 
will remember that the Butterflies have their 
antennae or horns ending in a little knob, whereas 
the antennae of the Moths are pointed. 

Without further preface we will take the first 
insect on our list, the Eyed Hawk Moth (Plate 
I. fig. 1), which is selected as the representative 
of its genus. The Hawk Moths owe their popu- 
lar name to the swiftness of their flight, in which 
they bear much the same place among Lepidop- 
tera as the hawk among birds. The average span 
of wings of this Moth is about three inches. 
The thorax and abdomen in this as in other 
sphinges are covered with a thick hairy " pile " 
of a close velvety texture. The fore-wings are 
of a ruddy brown, with marking of a lighter 
shade, clouded with olive. The hind- wings are 
of a beautiful rose tint, fading gradually towards 
the margin into ruddy brown, and thence into 
grey ; near the hinder angle of each is a dark 
patch with an eye-like marking of a pale bluish 
tinge, hence the name "eyed hawk." A horse- 
shoe-shaped marking on the back of the thorax, 
of the same colour as the "eyes" above mentioned, 
will also prove serviceable in identifying this 
striking insect. The abdomen is of much the 
same shade of colour as the fore -wings, and is 
marked with transverse bars of a deeper hue 



ETED HAWK MOTH. 



The larva or caterpillar is green, with seven 
pink stripes drawn diagonally on each side, and 
a pointed horn on the tail. This latter charac- 
teristic is common to all the true Hawk Moths. 
It may be obtained from willows, and the pupa 




or chrysalis can be found by digging at the roots 
of the tree. September is the best month for 
this purpose. The caterpillar is shown in fig. 
1, in the above illustration. 
In connection with this Moth must be nien- 
b 2 



4 LIME MOTH. 

tioned two other species of the same genus ; viz, 
the Poplab Hawk Moth {S'merinthus populi) 
and the Lime Hawk Moth (Smerinthus tilice). 

The former of these two insects resembles in 
shape the Eyed Hawk Moth, but is almost 
entirely brown, and without the " eyes " which 
distinguish that insect. The caterpillar feeds on 
the poplar, and is without the pink hue of the 
lateral stripes. The latter is buff in colour, and 
marked with bright olive green. The caterpillar 
is smaller than that of the preceding insect, and 




Lime Moth. 

is very rough on the surface. The lateral stripes 
are pale pink. It feeds on the lime, and changes 
into the chrysalis state about September. 

In some parts of the country it appears to be 
rare, but I have found it plentiful enough in 
those places where I have resided. 



DEATH S-HEAD MOTH. » 

In order to show the curious position which 
this Moth is fond of assuming, I have selected 
a figure drawn from a living specimen. In this 
attitude it so closely resembles a partly-withered 
leaf, that when it is clinging to a branch even 
the most practised eye can scarcely detect it. 

We next come to that splendid insect popularly 
known as the Death's-head Moth [Acherontia 
atropos, Plate I. fig. 2), on account of the peculiar 
mark on the upper part of the thorax. The span 
of wings of this, the largest of our British Lepi- 
doptera, averages about four and a half inches. 

The peculiar velvety clothing of the thorax 
and abdomen, mentioned above as so remarkable 
in the sphinges, is especially noticeable in this 
species. The colour of the upper wings is a 
dark blackish brown, shaded and mottled with 
ochreous yellow, warming into chestnut. The 
lower wings are buff, marked with two blackish 
bars. The abdomen is of the same colour as 
the lower wings, but diversified with six trans 
verse bars, of a deep bluish black, crossed by 
another that runs lengthwise along the upper 
surface throughout its whole length. 

On the thorax is the singular " death's-head " 
from which the insect derives its name : a re- 
presentation, in some specimens of marvellous 
fidelity, of a skull plainly figured in yellowish 
buff on a black ground. This remarkable insect 
has the power, supposed to be unique among 
the Lepidoptera, of emitting a shrill creaking 
sound, somewhat resembling the squeak of a 
slate-pencil. 

In some parts of the country the Death's- 



DEATHS-HEAD MOTH. 

head Moth is scarce, wliile in others it is com- 
paratively plentiful. In Kent 'it is found in 
profusion, and I have often had several alive at 
the same time, they having been caught by the 
field-labourers and brought to me. Each time 
that the Moth utters its strange, squeaking note, 
the whole body gives a convulsive sort of start. 
It can always be induced to squeak by being 
irritated. 

The reader must especially notice the short 
stout proboscis and the oddly-hooked antennae. 
As is the case with many of the larger Moths, 
its eyes shine in the dark like two balls of fire, 
the effect of which is very remarkable when the 
insect is confined in a room dimly lighted by a 
single candle. 

The larva of this Moth is, when full-grown, 
a very giant among caterpillars. Its colour is 
^reen, with diagonal pink stripes ; and the horn 
on the tail, instead of being hard, smooth, and 
sharply pointed, as is the case with the horns of 
the Hawk Moths already described, is yellow, com- 
paratively soft, and covered with little projections. 

Pig. 1 in the following illustration will enable 
the reader to detect the caterpillar if he sees it, 
but is necessarily reduced to less than half the 
size of a full-grown larva. 

It feeds on the jessamine and potato ; and in 
places where the latter vegetable is much culti- 
vated, the caterpillar is mostly common. Like 
other caterpillars, it can be reared in captivity, 
but the task is a very troublesome one, partly 
on account of the quantity of food consumed by 
so large and voracious a creature, and partly 
because it is rather a delicate larva, and apt to 



BREKmNG FROM PUP.34. / 

die without any apparent cause. Should the 
pupa, of which a figure is also given, he found, 
it must be placed on earth kept slightly damp 
by a handful or two of wetted moss laid over 
it. Otherwise the pupal envelope becomes so 
hard and horny, that the enclosed moth is un- 




able to break its way out, and perishes. When 
I first began moth- breeding, I lost several speci- 
mens by allowing them to become too dry. 

Yet, in any case, breeding moths from the 



8 '* stung" caterpillars. 

caterpillar, or rinding the pupae and keeping 
them until the insects come out, is a plan far 
superior to that of catching them, inasmuch as 
a captured moth is seldom killed without having 
suffered some damage. Those that are bred, on 
the contrary, can be watched until their wings 
have attained their full development, and can 
then be quietly slipped into a box, and killed 
either with the vapour of chloroform, or that of 
bruised laurel shoots. For my own part, I 
prefer the latter, as the chloroform is apt to 
make the wings so rigid that there is much 
difficulty in " setting" the insect properly. 

Many pupae, especially of the larger moths, 
are also lost through the means of some ichneu- 
mon fly, which has laid its eggs within them. 

It is impossible to detect a " stung " cater- 
pillar until it has ceased feeding, and not always 
easy to detect it even at that time. Often the 
caterpillar changes into a chrysalis without 
betraying any signs of the mortal injury that 
it has sustained ; but, when the time arrives for 
the appearance of the insect, the disappointed 
collector finds that instead of the moth the 
ichneumon fly occupies the box. 

In such a case the ichneumon should always 
be killed and preserved, together with the chry- 
salis from which it emerged, so that in process 
of time a valuable collection is formed of moths 
and the various species of ichneumon which 
infest them. 

In the illustration on page 7, the reader will 
see a figure of the ichneumon fly which attacks 
the Death's-head Moth, fig. 3, the pupa being 
shown in fig. 2. 



PRIVET MOTH. 



Wj will briefly take notice of one or two 
insects which ought not to be entirely passed 
over. One is the Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx 
ligustri), so called because the caterpillar feeds 
upon the leaves of the privet. 




Privet Moth end Larra. 

It is a very handsome insect, measuring more 
than four inches across the wings, which are 
very stiff and sharply pointed. The upper wings 
are mottled with various shades of brown, and 
the lower are pink, changing into yellow, and 
banded with three curved bars of deep black- 
brown. The abdomen is rose-pink, barred with 
black. The caterpillar is a large green larva. 



10 SPOTTED HAWK MOTH. 

with pink lateral stripes, and the upper part 
brown-Mack, and the lower yellow. 

Another species, the Convolvulus Hawk Moth 
(Sphinx. convolvuli), is sometimes, but rarely, found 
in England. Though larger than the Privet Moth, 
it is not nearly so handsome, the colour of the 
wings being almost entirely grey and brown. The 
caterpillar feeds on the common bindweed. 

At fig. 2, on the cut D (page 3), is seen a 
rather remarkable chrysalis. This is the pupa of 
the Spotted Hawk Moth (Deilephila euphorbia;). 
This Moth is a very pretty one, rather more 
than three inches in expanse of wing. The 
upper pair of wings are yellowish brown, mottled 
with black, and the lower of the same hues, 
but varied with pink. The abdomen is greyish 
white, with two black transverse bands, and the 
extremity is brown. 

The larva feeds on the sea-spurge (Euphorbia 
paralia). 

On Plate I. fig. 3, is shown the Small Ele- 
phant Hawk Moth (Cheer ocampa porcellus), as 
an example of the Elephant Hawk Moths, so 
called from the length to which the proboscis 
extends. It can be distinguished from the 
Sphinx Hawk Moth by its shorter and more 
rounded wings. The wings, which are uni- 
form throughout, are of a pale buff, tending to 
orange, with three distinct transverse markings 
or bands of ruddy brown: one along the outer 
margin, extending through both upper and lower 
wings, one parallel with it through the middle, 
and the third at the base or insertion of the 



ELEPHANT HAWK MOTH. ', 11 

wing. The thorax is coloured like the wings. 
The abdomen is of a pale olive brown, with 
transverse bands of a lighter shade. 

The name chcerocampa signifies " hog-cater- 
pillar," and is given to this genus because the 
head and first two segments of the body narrow 
suddenly like the head and snout of a hog. 

The larva feeds on various species of solium, 
or bed-straw. 




Elephant Hawk Moth. 

The Elephant Hawe Moth {Chcerocampa 
Mpenor) [see above] is rather more plentiful 
than the preceding insect, and may be found by 
the side of ditches, the caterpillar feeding on the 
common willow herb. This larva is remarkable 
for two great black spots, one on either side of 
the body, looking much like eyes. 

Oor next insect is the Humming'-bird Hawk 
Moth {Macroglossa stellatarum), Plate I. fig. 4. 



12 HUMMING-BIRD HAWK MOTH. 

This Moth, which is tolerably common, haa 
been very familiar to the public of late years, 
on account of the many letters which have ap- 
peared in the daily journals, much to the amuse- 
ment of practical entomologists, who have been 
too familiar with the insect in question to think 
it worth a special notice. 

It derives its name from the stvle of its Might, 
which so closely resembles that of the humming- 
bird that persons who have resided in the "West 
Indies, and afterwards come to live in England, 
have been deluded into the idea that they have 
seen genuine humming-birds flying about. 

The average span of the wings is rather less 
than two inches. The upper pair of wings are 
of a neutral tint, tending to brownish black. 
Across the centre of each run two parallel wavy 
black lines, about one-fourth of an inch apart, in 
the space between which is a small black dot, 
The rest of the wings are of a cloudy pattern, 
pale in the middle and tending to black at the 
base and outer margin. The lower wings are 
pale yellow, shaded with blackish grey at the 
base, deepening into orange towards the margin, 
and thence to a ruddy brown. 

The thorax, which is well clothed with hair, 
is uniform in colour with the fore-wings — a 
brownish black ; a wedge-shaped streak of the 
same colour runs along the upper part of the 
abdomen to the tail, which is strongly tafted 
with hairs of a similar shade. The rest of the 
abdomen is marked in chequers of black and 
white. The long spiral tongue and proboscis can be 
projected to a considerable distance from the head, 
so that the insect can feed while on the wing. 



HUMMINGBIRD HAWK MOTH. 



13 



Few persons, when they have once seen it, 
will forget the manner in which this Moth feeds. 
The spectator may be looking at a flower, and 
be close to it, when suddenly a moth appears 
in front of the blossom. How it got there he 
does not know, for it appears as if it had been 
gifted with the power of making itself visible 
and invisible at will. 




Presently, a long, thread-like proboscis is 
thrust into the flower, and there the insect 
feeds quite at its ease, suspended in the air by 
the wings, which are scarcely visible from the 
rapidity of their motion. It is very bold, and 



14 HEE HAWK MOTH. 

as long as the spectator is quiet or moves gently 
it will continue to feed ; but if even a hand be 
moved sharply, it shoots off as rapidly as it came, 
and its place is vacant as if by magic. 

The Humming-bird Moth is fond of flying 
along the sunny side of walls, and, swift as is 
its flight, may be taken in a common butterfly- 
net by meeting it in its course along the wall, 
and giving a sharp, quick stroke of the net as 
the insect draws near. The larva feeds on many 
plants of the stellate kind, and hence derives 
its specific title of stellatarum. The pupa 
or chrysalis of this insect is shown in the pre- 
ceding illustration (fig. 1). 

There are only two other English insects be- 
longing to this genus. The first is the Narrow- 
bordered Bee Hawk Moth (Macroglossa bombyli- 
formis); see Plate I. fig. 5. According to several 
systematic zoologists, this Moth belongs to the 
genus which immediately follows ; but in Mr. 
Doubleday's arrangement it takes the position 
which is here assigned to it. 

The average span of the wings is a little more 
than one inch and a half They are almost en- 
tirely transparent, showing the nervures as a dark 
tracery. The margins only, which are of a greyish 
brown, have any distinct colour. The thorax and 
abdomen are hairy, the former being of a dull 
ruddy brown, and the latter strangely coloured in 
two distinct segments — the upper half a lively 
crimson, and the lower or tail half a bright yellow. 

The whole insect bears a strong superficial 
resemblance to the humble-bee tribe, whence its 
name ; it has however, of course, no real affinity 
with the bees. 



THE HORNET MOTH. 15 

The larva of this insect feeds on the Devil'a- 
bit scabious (Scabiosa succisa). 

The second species, the Broad-borbereb 
Hawk Moth (Macroglossa fuciformis), much 
resembles the preceding insect, from which 
it can be distinguished by the greater breadti 
of the dark border round the wings. 

Next come a few more of the remarkable 
Clear-winged Moths, the first of which is the 
Hornet Moth (Sesia apiformis). The popular 
name is a very appropriate one, as the insect 
bears the most extraordinary resemblance to a 
wasp or hornet, and scarcely any one, except an 
entomologist, would like to touch it with the 
bare hand. 

The average span of the wings is rather under 
an inch and a half. They are almost entirely 
divested of plumage, except on the borders, 
which are edged with a narrow band of brown. 
The thorax is also brown, mottled with a darker 
hue, and the abdomen is yellow, banded with 
dark red. So close is the resemblance between 
this insect and the wasps, that when showing 
my collection, I have often found great difficulty 
in persuading the spectators that the insect was 
really a moth, and have been obliged to place a 
veritable hornet by the side of the Hornet Moth 
before they could see the distinction between 
the two insects. 

The larva of the Hornet Moth is one of the 
wood-borers, and lives in the interior of poplar- 
trees. It can generally be found in the trunk at 
a little distance from the ground. When the 
insect is about to pass into the perfect state, the 



16 CURRANT CLEAR WING MOTH. 

chrysalis works its way through the gallery which 
it had bored when a caterpillar, and partly pro- 
jects, so that when the Moth makes its appear- 
ance it passes at once into the air. Some- 
times the chrysalis emerges altogether, and 
can be found among the loose bark near the 
roots. 

A figure of this Moth is given in Plate I. 
fig. 6. 

On the same plate, fig. 7, is another insect of 
the same genus. This is the Currant Clear 
Wing Moth (Sesia tipuliformis), which bears 
the same curious resemblance to a gnat that 
the preceding insect does to a hornet. 

The average span of wings is rather under an 
inch. Both wings, like those of the preceding 
insect, are transparent. They are tinged with 
yellow towards the margin, which is black. 
The thorax is of a deep blue black, with a 
jlight yellowish streak on either side. The ab- 
domen and its anal tuft are of the same colour, 
Avith three yellow bands. 

The larva of this pretty little Moth lives in 
the interior of currant twigs, where it feeds 
upon the pith. It may often be seen in the 
summer reposing on the leaves of the currant- 
bushes, enjoying the rays of the sun, and may 
easily be captured. 

We now come to another family of Moths, 
the best representative of which is that singu- 
larly pretty insect, the Wood Leopard Moth 
(Zeuzera cesculi). 

The span of wings depends much on the sex 
of the insect, that of the male being about two 



WOOD LEOPARD MOTH. 17 

Inches, and that of the female half an inch 
wider. As is often the case with insects and 
birds, the female is by far the larger and hand- 
somer insect. i 
The fore-wings are semi-transparent, of a faint 
greenish yellow, thickly studded with blue-black 
spots of a rich metallic lustre. The hind- wings 
are similarly though more faintly marked. The 
thorax is also similarly coloured, with seven blue- 
black spots, arranged somewhat like the seven 
in a pack of cards. The abdomen is hairy, and 






of the same greenish tinge, deepening into an 
almost olive shade at either side. 

The antennas are very beautifully formed, 
and deserve examination through a magnifier. 
An enlarged representation of this organ is 
given in the above illustration (fig. 3). This 
pectinated form of the antennas furnishes a 
simple characteristic by which to distinguish the 
sexes, the antennae of the former being without 
the feather-like appendages at the base. 

The larva of the Leopard Moth, like that of 
the preceding insect, is a wood-borer, and often 



18 QOAT MOTH. 

does considerable damage to the pears, apples, 
chesnuts, and walnuts, not to mention the elm, 
ash, and other forest trees, the oak being appa- 
rently too hard for its jaws. 

When it is about to make its way out of the 
branches in which it has been feeding, it changes 
the course of its burrow, eats away the wood 
close to the surface of the bark, and then 
spins a cocoon made of wood-chips, in which 
it remains until the time for its entrance into 
the world. 

The insect is shown in Plate II. fig. 1, and 
the form of its burrow is seen in the illustra- 
tion marked L, fig. 3. p. 19. 

The largest and most destructive of the wood- 
boring Moths is shown in Plate II. fig. 2. It 
is popularly called the Goat Moth (Cossus ligni- 
perda), because the larva exudes a powerful odour 
which has been compared to that of the he-goat. 
The odour in question is not only powerful, but 
enduring. It is possible to detect the hidden 
habitations of the Goat Moth and caterpillar by 
the scent that issues from the burrows, and 
some of the cocoons spun by the larva still 
retain their peculiar odour, though five or six 
years have elapsed since I took them from the 
tree. 

The span of wings is rather more than three 
inches. The fore-wings are greyish brown, 
clouded with white, and marked with nume- 
rous transverse bands. The hind-wings are the 
same, but more faintly coloured. The thorax 
is brown, tinged with yellow ; the abdomen, 
which is large, the same, with a longitudinal 



GOAT MOTH. 19 

yellow band along its full extent. The other 
plumage is remarkably soft and woolly. 

The larva is, when full-grown, very large, 
smooth, and of a mahogany-red colour. It re- 
mains in the larval state for three years, con- 




structing in the winter of each year a cocoon 
from the chips of gnawed wood. These cocoons 
vary in size with the dimensions of the insect, 
and I have before me a series of three cocoons 



20 GHOST MOTH. 

made by the same larva, that I was fortunate 
enough to procure from a willow-tree in Kent. 

The willow is the favourite tree of the Goat 
Moth, though the insect does attack the poplar, 
the ash, and the elm. A figure of a half-grown 
Goat Moth larva is given in the illustration marked 
F, fig. 3, page 13. 

The Goat Moth is the only English represen- 
tative of the genus. By some naturalists the 
caterpillar is thought to be the " cossus " which, 
when cooked, was a favourite dish with Eoman 
epicures in the time of the Csesars. 

Our next insect is the curious Ghost Moth 
(Hepialus humuli), which is shown in Plate II. 
fig. 3. 

The span of the wing is rather under two 
inches and a half. The wings of the male are 
snowy white above, presenting an almost glazed 
appearance, and fringed with yellow, under-side 
a yellowish brown. The thorax and abdomen 
are yellow shaded with orange. The wings of 
the female have none of the sheeny gloss which 
distinguishes those of the male, but are dull 
yellow, shaded with orange, with several irre- 
gular annular markings. 

The rather ominous name of Ghost Moth is 
given to the insect in consequence of the habits 
of the male. 

It is given to fluttering over the herbage at 
eighteen inches or two feet from the ground, and 
occasionally settling on a stalk of grass, or simi- 
lar object. As it is flying about in the dark, the 
white shining upper surfaces of the wings glitter 
in a most curious manner, almost appearing aa 



GREEN FORESTER. 21 

if giving out their own light. But as soon 

as the insect settles on a stalk of grass or 

other herb, the dark under-surface is turned 

upwards, and the insect disappears as if by 

magic. 

The eggs of this moth are small, black, and 

not unlike gunpowder, and the larva feeds mostly 

on the roots of the hop, as is implied by the 

specific name. The peculiar nervures of the wing 

are seen in cut G, fig. 1, page 17. 

A tolerably common example of the family of 

the Procridae is found 

in the Green Forester 

(Procris Statices). 

Its shape may be seen 

from the accompanying 

illustration, which is of 

the natural size. The 

upper wings are green, 

with a peculiar translu- 
Green Forester. , , r . , , , 

cent gloss, and the lower 

wings are brown. The short, stout, dark green 
caterpillar feeds on the sorrel. 

The only other British member of this family, 
the Scarce Forester [Procris Globularice), re- 
sembles the Green Forester in shape, but may be 
distinguished by the coppery gloss of the upper 
wings. 

Next in order comes the pretty and common 
Six-spot Burnet Moth (Anthrocera filipendulce), 
which though by no means the largest is certainly 
one of the handsomest of the British Moths. The 
body and fore-wings are a deep metallic indigo 
green., each wing having six crimson metallic 




22 BURNET MOTH. 

spots or markings; hind-wings rich crimson, 'with 
narrow dark green bordering. 

The green of the upper wings is so exceedingly- 
deep as to look almost black at the first glance. 

The larva of the Six-spot Burnet Moth feeds 
chiefly on the common deepwort (Spircea filipen- 
dulce), and towards the end of May the chrysalis 
may be found in profusion, inhabiting a spindle- 
shaped cocoon fixed throughout its length to a 
stalk of grass or similar support. I have seen a 
field so covered with these cocoons that it was 
scarcely possible to walk without crushing them. 
One of these cocoons is shown in cut L. fig. 1, 
page 19, as it appears when attached to the grass 
and the head and tongue of the insect are shown 
on cut F, fig. 2, page 1 3. 

An insect allied to the preceding species is the 
large Chimney Sweep (Sterrlwpterix [Psyche] 
nigricans) . 

The wings of this interesting insect are soft 
pink brown, and that slightly covered with 
plumage. Only the male has fully developed 
wings, those of the female being so diminutive 
that she is practically wingless, looking much 
more like a grub than a moth. The larva makes 
for itself a curious dwelling of little twigs and 
similar materials, and never leaves its home as 
long as it remains in that stage of existence. A 
figure of the larva in its moveable home may be 
seen in cut L, fig. 4, page 19. 

Mr. Doubleday thinks that this family ought 
to be placed among the Tinese. 

"We now come to some of the Moths which are 
called by the fanciful name of Footman. 



LARGE FOOTMAN. 



23 



The first of them is the Large Footman (Litho- 
sia quadra), which is represented in Plate II. fig. 5, 
a little less than the average size. The fore-wings 
of the male are grey, deepening in shade towards 
the anterior margin, and the hind-wings are pale 
yellowish white. In the female, the fore-wings 
are primrose yellow, and have two distinct black 
spots towards the middle. 




-—j 



D 



In the above description the words " anterior 
margin " are mentioned. Although I intend to 
avoid the use of strictly scientific terms as far as 
possible, there must occur instances where it is 
impossible to do so. I therefore insert two dia- 
grams representing the various portions of the 



24 THE WINGS. 

upper and under pair of wings, showing the divi- 
sions as they are, like the countries in a map, 
These divisions are not arbitrary, nor the mere 
invention of entomologists. They are the natural 
boundaries of the wings ; and, unless the reader 
makes himself acquainted with them, he will find 
himself quite at a loss when reading the descrip- 
tions of insects in purely scientific books. 

The preceding diagram represents the various 
parts of the upper and anterior wing of the 
Moth. 

Beginning with the part designated by the 
capital letters, a is the anterior margin, B the 
costal nervure, c the median nervure, d the 
anal or posterior angle, e the posterior or interior 
margin, f the discoidal cell, g the anterior angle, 
h the outer or exterior angle, i the subcostal 
nervure. 

Next we come to those divisions which are 
designated by figures. 

1 is the sub-median nervure ; 2, the first me- 
dian nervure; 3, second ditto; 4, third ditto; 5 and 
6 are the discoidal nervurcs ; 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, the 
snbcostal nervures; 12, the disco-cellular nervule; 
13, the middle ditto; and 14, the lower ditto. 

Thefollowingdiagram represents the correspond- 
ing divisions of the lower or posterior wings. 

In the diagram, a is the outer or posterior 
margin, b the anal or posterior angle, c the an- 
terior angle, d the anterior margin, e the abdo- 
minal margin, and / the discoidal cell. Taking 
the parts represented by figures, 1 is the sub- 
median nervure ; 2, 3, 4, the median nervules ; 
5, the discoidal nervure ; and 3, 7, 8, the sub- 
costal nervules. 



THE WINGS. 



25 



These seem rather crabbed terms, and difficult 
to learn, but they are soon mastered, and a 
knowledge of them is absolutely necessary to the 
entomologist. The best way of learning them is to 
take three or four different Moths, and by the aid 




of the diagram A (page 23) to trace the different 
parts. At first this will seem rather difficult, as the 
nervures are not nearly so distinct in the Moth as 
in the diagram. A very little practice, however, 



2G 



THE HEAD AND THORAX. 



will enable the eye to trace thein without the 
least difficulty, and when they are once learned 
they will not be forgotten. 

The important part of the head and thorax of a 
Moth are shown in the diagram below. 

We will take fig. 1 first, and begin at the top. 
d d are the palpi ; and between the large, protu- 
berant compound eyes which project from the 
sides of the head, are the little simple eyes called 
calli. These are shown at c c. 



9 





The thorax is divided iuto three portions. The 
first is called the prothorax, and tho two lobes of 
its collar are seen at a a; the middle part or meso- 
thorax is shown at b ; tne last portion or meta- 
thorax is shown at e, and the scute llum at/. 

Kg. 2 gives the parts of the head on an en- 
larged scale. In the middle, at i, is the tongue, 
or proboscis. At either side of the tongue are the 
palpi, h h, and at g g are the cavities into which 
are inserted the bases of the antennae. 



SrECKLED FOOTMAN. 27 

There are, of course, many other divisions of 
body, but these are the most important 

We will now return to the description of the 
Moths which have been selected for this book. 

On Plate II. fig. 6, may be seen the Speckled 
Footman (Eulepia cribrum). This is not so 
common an insect as many of our examples, but 
it is too characteristic to be omitted from the 
book. It may be found in Hampshire, the cater- 
pillar feeding on the heath. It derives its popu- 
lar name from the mode in which the white 
upper wings are speckled with black and brown 
spots, arranged in a tolerably regular order. 

Another of these Moths, the Crimson Speckled- 
Footman (Deiopeia pulchella), is shown in Plate 
II. fig. 7. It is a singularly pretty insect, and is 
found towards the end of autumn. Like the pre- 
ceding insect, it is scarce, but too conspicuous 
to be omitted. The caterpillar is said by Mr. 
H. N. Humphreys to feed on the common forget- 
me-not. I am not personally acquainted with this 
larva. Pore-wings white, studded with crimson 
spots closely interspersed with smaller black ones. 
Hind-wings white, with an irregular black bor- 
der at the outer margin. Thorax and abdomen 
white shaded with grey. 

Our next example is the Cinnabar Moth {Eu- 
chelia jacobece). This very pretty insect is very 
plentiful in some localities, and scarcely ever seen 
in others. For example, about Oxford it is one 
of the most familiar of Moths, flitting about the 
fields and gardens, and its pretty caterpillar 
being common on the ragwort. Yet in many 
parts of Kent it is one of the scarcest of 



28 CII.'NABAR HOTH. 

Lepidoptera, although, its special plant grows in 
profusion. 

The Cinnabar Moth is almost unique among 
lepidopterous insects in having the upper and 
under sides of the wings exactly alike. The 
ground colour of the upper wings is deep black 
with scarlet marks, and that of the under wings 
scarlet with a black-brown band surrounding 
them. 

The caterpillar is bright yellow with black 
bands extending nearly round the body, and, as it 
is very conspicuous, it is easily seen. If alarmed, 
it looses its hold of the leaves and falls to the 
ground. I have captured, bred, and dissected 
great numbers of this insect. The Rev. J. Greene, 
in his valuable little work, "The Insect Hunter's 
Companion," states that he never took more than 
one specimen of this Moth in England, though he 
captured plenty in Ireland. He also mentions 
the curious fact that, although he found the pupae 
in boundless profusion on the bark of wych elm, 
he never saw the perfect insect except in this one 
instance. 

The following is a more detailed description of 
the colour of this beautiful species, a figure of 
which may be seen in Plate III. fig. 1. 

The fore-wings are of a deep bluish black, with 
three circular spots of pale crimson at the outer 
margin, and two streaks of the same colour, the 
first from the base to the foremost spot, the 
other along the hinder margin. The hind-wings 
are uniform crimson, the body blue-black. The 
underside is exactly the same as the upper, a 
very unusual circumstance. 

Next on our list comes the Moth known by the 



CLOUDED BUFF. 29 

name of the Clouded Buff (Htcthemonia russula\ 
Plate III. fig. 2. 

This pretty but inconspicuous Moth is widely 
but thinly spread over England, and may generally 
be found in June, inhabiting open spaces in woods 
and on heather- covered lands. The larva, wbich 
is covered with red-brown hairs, and bas a red 
line along the back, may be found upon the 
scabious and one or two other plants. The upper 
pair of wings are remarkable for having their 
colouring merely composed of different shades 
of the same hue : those of the male, yellowish 
brown shading into russet at the margine, with 
a central irregular dark marking. Hind-wings 
yellow, with dark brown markings. The fore- 
wings of the male are orange, with dark central 
mark. The male is larger than the female, 
and the colours of the sexes are so different 
that they scarcely seem to belong to the same 
species. The span of wing is about an inch and 
a half. 

Our next example is the well-known Tiger 
Moth {Chelonia [or Arctiaj caja). 

Were not this Moth so common, it would take 
high rank among entomologists, as one of the 
first of the British insects, while its extreme 
abundance renders it so common that it is utterly 
despised by collectors. It is rather a large Moth, 
the span of wings sometimes reaching nearly 
three inches. 

The usual colour of the insect is as follows. 
Ihe fore-wings are rich dark brown, with cream- 
coloured markings. The hind-wings are deep 
crimson, sometimes with a touch of orange, with 
several black spots. There is much variation 



30 



TIGER MOTH. 



observable in different specimens in the markings 
both, of the fore and hind wings. In the former 
the brown sometimes almost eats up the cream- 
colour, and vice versa; and in the latter some- 
times the crimson, sometimes the black, greatly 




li 



preponderates. Thorax brown and hairy, abdo- 
men pale crimson. 

There are indeed few Lepidoptera more vari- 
able than the Tiger Moth Mr. Doubleday pos- 
sesses a wonderful series of varieties, ranging from 



TIGER MOTH. 31 

an almost total absence of colour to deep black. 
The young entomologist must remember that 
almost all insects lose their colour when exposed 
to the light, and that if he does not keep his 
specimens in utter darkness the colour will fade. 
The Tiger Moth is very liable to fade, and some 
of my specimens, from which the light has not 
been carefully excluded, are quite pale in colour. 
The larva or caterpillar is familiarly known by 
the name of the Woolly Bear, in consequence of 
the dense coating of long hair with which it is 
covered. A figure of this larva is shown in the 
illustration on the preceding page, fig. ] . It feeds 
chiefly on the common dumb nettle, and consumes 




Tiger Moth — Hammock. 

great quantities of the plant, as I can testify, 
from having had to feed upwards of four hundred 
Woolly Bears while experimenting on the com- 
parative anatomy of the insect in its stages. 

When it has finished feeding, it spins a loose 
kind of silken hammock (see the above illus- 
tration), and, after throwing off its larval 
skin, lies recumbent as a pupa until the middle 
of the summer, when it emerges in its perfect 
state. It is rather swift of foot, and when 
cowering in the evening among the herbage, 
with its brown upper wings closed over the 
splendid scarlet of the lower pair, it looks so like 



32 CREAM SPOT TIGER MOTH. 

a mouse that my cat has often been decei red, and 
pounced on the Moth thinking he had caught a 
mouse. 

This beautiful Moth is shown on Plate III. fig. 3. 

There is another species belonging to the same 
genus, namely, the Cream Spot Tiger Moth {Che- 
Ionia [or Arctia\ villica). This is a smaller and, if 
possible, a handsomer insect. In this Moth the 
fore-wings are deep brown-black with patches of 
creamy white, and the body and posterior wings 
are rich orange with black marks. 

This is said to be a plentiful insect. I am in- 
clined to consider it to be locally plentiful, but 
generally rather scarce. The larva is much darker 
than that of the preceding species, and not so 
hairy. It feeds upon the groundsel and one or 
two other plants. 

The general name of Arctia was given to these 
Moths on account of the popular title of Woolly 
Bear which has been conferred upon their larva, 
and I personally much prefer it to the word 
Chelonia. 

On Plate III. fig. 4, we see a figure of the 
large Ermine Moth (Spilosoma menthastri). 

There are several Ermine Moths, which are 
so called from the soft downy nature of their 
plumage and the dark spots with which they are 
variegated. It is a very conspicuous insect, and 
may be easily recognized from the illustration, 
which is given of the natural size. 

The fore-wings are pale buff, with numerous 
black spots. Hind-wings white, with black veins 
and a few black spots. Thorax tufted, pale buff. 
Abdomen the same colour, with a longitudinal 
series of black spots. 



BROWN-TAILED MOTH. 3, 

Another species, the Buff Ermine (Spilosoma 
lubricepeda), is still more common. 

The general colour is yellow buff, variegated 
with blackish spots, and an orange stripe run? 
along the back, which often become merged to- 
gether and form broken and irregular lines. Both 
these Moths may he found sticking on the bark 
of trees, quite motionless during the hours of 
daylight. 

The larva of this species has a black skin, with 
a moderately dense clothing of brown hair. It 
feeds on many plants. 

Next in order come the curious Moths belong 
ing to the genus Liparis. They are remarkabl 
for the manner in which the feather-scales ar 
prolonged into feathery plumes at the. end of th 
tail. This is largely developed in the female in 
sect, and is used by her in forming a sort of pent 
house over her eggs. The eggs are piled in e 
conical heap on some flat substance, and the 
Moth lays over them a complete thatched roo' 
formed of these elegant plumes. 

The species represented on Plate III. fig. 
is the Brown-tailed Moth (Liparis chrysorrhoza 
The upper surface of the wings is pure satin} 
white ; under surface of fore-wings tinged with 
brownish yellow. The thorax and abdomen are 
of the same colour as the wings. The tail is 
strongly tufted with golden brown hairs. 

The larva of this moth feeds on the leaves 
of small trees, the hawthorn and sloe being, per 
haps, its favourite resort. It is yellowish foi 
the first few segments, and changes to pinkish 
orange for the rest of the body. It may be 
known by the long tufts or pencils of hail 

D 



34 



GOLD-TAILED MOTH. 



which project on either side of the first segment, 
and the shorter tufts that are found on the rest 
of the body. 

The larvae are social, and spin large webs, in 
which they live in common. In some years this 
insect has been so abundant as to threaten the 
destruction of every tree in the place, and then 
has disappeared so completely that scarcely a 
specimen can be found in places where it 
formerly swarmedT 




Gold-tailed Moth and Larva. 

The Gold-tailed Moth (Liparis •auriflua) is 
somewhat like the preceding insect, but the tuft 
at the end of the tail is bright golden yellow. 
Like the Brown-tailed Moth, it has several times 
appeared in such numbers that the trees and 
hedges were quite devastated by the hosts of 
larvae. The hairs of the caterpillar are very irri- 
tant to tender skins. I have been almost disabled 



VAPOURER MOTH. 



35 



by them before discovering the real cause of the 
mischief. 

On Plate III. fig. 6, is a figure of the common 
Vapoureb Moth {Orgyia antique!). The wings are 
of a rich brown, the fore-wings with a few trans- 
verse wavy black lines, and a white spot at the 




Male Vapourer and Wingless Female. 

hinder angle. Thorax and abdomen the same 
colour as the wings. Antennae very markedly 
pectinated or feathered on the inside. Female 
wingless, and very heavily built. 

This is a very abundant species, and as it is 
one of the day-flying Moths, it is as conspicuous 
as it is abundant. 




Vapourer Larva Moth. 



The caterpillar is a very pretty one, dark brown, 
variegated with red spots, and being adorned with 
" tussocks," i.e. thick compact bundles of white- 
grey hair on some of the first segments, and 
d 2 



36 TUSSOCK MOTH. 

with spreading tufts of black hair on either side 
of the head and tail. 

As for the female Moth, it is very inconspi- 
cuous, and, having no wings, is seldom captured, 
the generality of specimens in cabinets being 
obtained by rearing the larva. There is a great 
similarity between the wingless females of the 
different species, and one of them is given in 
Plate V fig. 5. 

There is an insect allied to the Vapourer, which 
deserves a passing notice, more on account of its 
larva than for its own sake. This is the Light 
Tussock Moth (Dasycliira pudibunda), which 
derives its popular name from the liat-topped tus- 
socks of straw-coloured hairs which decorate the 
back. From the twelfth segment there protrudes 
a tuft or pencil of reddish hair, somewhat re- 
sembling the tail of a dog. The larva is very 
plentiful in the hop counties, where it is known 
by the name of the Hop-dog. There is scarcely 
a year when I do not receive a box or two of 
hop-dogs, with a request for the name of the 
creature. 

On Plate VI. fig. 7, is seen a Moth which has 
the curious name of Oak-eggar (Bombyx [Lasio- 
campa] quercus). The figure represents the female. 
She may be at once known by her pale coloure, 
and by the simple antennas, which have not the 
beautiful pectination which distinguishes those 
of the male insect. 

This is a common Moth, but, owing to the 
swift flight of the males, they are more obtained 
by rearing from the larva than by capture with 
the net. 

Should the collector possess a female, he may 



OAK-EGGAR. 37 

capture as many males as he likes. All he has 
to do is, to put her in a box covered with gauze, 
take her to the borders or the open spaces of a 
wood, and put the box on the ground. By some 
strange faculty the males are enabled to detect 
her presence at an amazing distance, and will 
come in numbers to the box, over which they 
will crawl with such entire devotion to the pri- 
soner that they may be picked up with the fingers. 
I have caught numbers of male Oak-eggars, merely 
by placing in my chamber a box containing a 
newly-bred female, and leaving the window open. 

This mode of catching the males is called 
" sembling," and can be used with several other 
species of Moths. 

The wings of the male are of deep chocolate 
brown, with a broad pale ochreish band a little 
bevond the centre, extending through both wings, 
shading off again into chocolate at the margin. 
A distinctly marked white " comma" is observable 
about the centre of the fore-wings. The thorax 
is dark chocolate, slightly tinged here and there 
with pale ochre. The abdomen is of the same 
pale ochre, with transverse chocolate markings at 
the joints. 

The female is much larger than the male, and 
the markings, though similar, are much paler. 
There is much variety noticeable in various speci- 
mens as to the depth of colouring in this species ; 
the colours are peculiarly fugitive when exposed 
to light. They are also destroyed by the fumes 
of sulphur, as I found in my early entomologizing 
days, when I killed some of these insects with 
sulphur. 

The larva grows to a considerable size, and is 



38 



OAK-EGGAR. 



thickly covered with hairs. This peculiarity is 
referred to in the generic nam i, Lasiocampa, which 
signifies hairy caterpillars. The junctions of the 
segments are marked by belts of velvet black, 
which are very conspicuous as the caterpillar 
bends its body in the act of crawling. It feeds 
upon various plants, and is very easy to rear. 

When it is full-fed, it spins a remarkable 
cocoon, just like a brown egg. This cocoon, 
which is about as large as a sparrow's egg, though 
longer in proportion to its width, may often be 
found fastened to the stems of herbaceous plants, 




^%..v- : 



Eggar Cocoon. 



and the twigs of hedgerows. It is of very tough 
and hard material. 

The next insect in our list is the Fox Moth 
(Bomhyx rubi), a figure of which is given in 
Plate IV. fig. 2. It is a tolerably common 
species. The wings are of a nearly uniform 
reddish brown, or fox colour, — hence the name, 
— with two oblique lines on either side the centre 
of fore-wings. The thorax and abdomen are of 
the same colour as the wings. 




LACKEY MOTH, 39 

As is indicated by the specific name, the cater- 
pillar feeds on the bramble. It is remarkable for 
the alteration in its colour as it increases in size. 
When small, it is dark blackish brown, -with the 
junction of the segments marked with belts of 
bright gold. As it becomes older, the gold bands 
vanish, and the entire larva is deep rusty red. 
The cocoon is comparatively a large one, permitting 
the pupa- to move from one end to the other. 

The Ground Lackey Moth (Bombyx [or 
Clisiocampa] castrensis) is a rather pretty moth, 
and very variable in colour. 
The upper wings are reddish 
yellow, with two darker bars, 
and the under wings are al- 
together darker. This is the 
Ground Lackey Moth. usual marking, but there is 
so great a variety of hues 
that a more detailed description is needless. 
The larva feeds chiefly on the herbage of salt 
marshes. 

On Plate IV- fig. 6, is a figure of the common 
Drinker Moth (Odonestris potatoria). As may 
be seen by the illustration, this is a conspicuous, 
though a soberly-tinted insect; the beak-like form 
of the palpi, the soft downy plumage, and the 
deeply pectinated antennae of the male, at once 
pointing it out. The remarkable forked appear- 
ance of the tail-plumage is another characteristic. 
The fore-wings of the male are of a ruddy 
yellow, with a white spot, somewhat like that 
on the Oak-eggar, and an oblique dusky streak 
or bar runs from the apex to middle of hind 
margin. The female is much larger and of a 
lighter colour than the male. Hind-wings nearly 



*0 



DRINKER MOTH. 



uniform ochre, or but slightly marked. Thorax 
and abdomen also uniform. The tail in the male 
is bifid, that is, is split into two lobes or tufts ; 
in the female it is pointed. 

The gaudy caterpillar of this species, con- 
spicuous for its handsome colouring of yellow 




Drinker Moth and Caterpillar. 



and deep chocolate brown, is common along our 
hedgerows, and is easily reared. It makes a 
spindle-shaped cocoon of much softer material 
than that of the Eggar Moth. 

This Moth is easily attracted by light. I have 
caught many of them fluttering about the gas- 



LAPPET MOTH. 



41 



lamps in the streets of Oxford, and in the shop- 
windows, and have seen them lying disabled 
within the lamps, having contrived to crawl 
through the aperture by which the gas-pipe enters 
the lamp. 




Lappet iloth (wiligs uloseu,. 

On Plate IV fig. 6, is represented the Lappet 
Moth (Bombyx quercifolia), as it appears with its 
wings spread, — when it closes them it presents 
quite a different aspect. (See above.) 

The colour of the wings is exactly that of a 
brown, withered leaf, a green band near the edges 



42 KENTISH GLORT. 

adding to the resemblance. When the insect 
is at rest, the hinder wings project beyond the 
upper, and make it look so exactly like a dry 
crumpled leaf, that even a practised eye will 
often fail to detect it as it clings to a twig. 

The caterpillar grows to a considerable size. It 
is grey, hairy, and remarkable for the dark, velvet- 
like bosses in the second of the segments. It 
feeds on many herbs and trees, and is so readily 
discovered and easily reared, that almost any 
number can be procured in a single season. 

The Moth which is known by the popular name 
of the Kentish Glory (Endromis versicolor), 
was once, as its name implies, found in Kent, and 
was one of the rarest of British insects. Other 
haunts of this Moth have, however, been now 
discovered ; and the insect, though not a very 
common one, is no longer a rarity. It has been 
principally found in the Eannoch woods near 
Perth. It owes its reputation more to its former 
rarity than to the beauty of its colour. The 
fore-wings are variegated with varied wavy pa- 
rallel markings of deep rich brown, orange tawny, 
and pale yellow, fading almost into white. 
These markings are continued into the hind- 
wings, which, however, have a groundwork of 
yellow, deepening into rich orange at the hind 
margin. In the female the markings are much 
the same, but a pale grey takes the part of the 
yellow and a faint blush pink of the orange. 
The thorax and abdomen are dark brown, with 
a faint shading of yellow in male and pink in 
female. 

The larva of this species feeds on several trees, 
of which the birch, the lime, and the hazel seem 



EMPEROR MOTH. 



43 



to be its favourites. The Moth, is shown in Plate 
IV fig. 3. 

Here must be mentioned the beautiful Emperor 
Moth (Saturnia pavonia-minor). 

This insect is equally remarkable in its three 
stages of existence. 

The larva is one of the handsomest of the 
British caterpillars. Its colour is bright green, 




Male Emperor Moth, Larva, and Cocoon. 

belted with black, and each segment is very 
deeply marked, as if a number of threads had 
been tightly bound round the body. Each seg- 
ment is adorned with a number of tufts of golden 
yellow spots, from which proceed little tufts of 
bristles. 
In shape the Moth somewhat resembles the 



44 



EMPEROR MOTH. 



Oak-eggar (see Plate III. fig. 7) ; but it is easily 
known by the eye-like spot in each wing. The 
centre of the eye is yellow, surrounded with 
black, and having a blue crescent partly sur- 
rounding it. 

Before the larva assumes the pupal state, it 
spins a most singular cocoon. This cocoon is 
double, a loose outer envelope enclosing an inner 




Emperor Moth— Coccxn. 

cocjon made of stiffer hairs. The ends of these 
hairs converge over the opening, so that the Moth, 
when it shakes off the pupal skin, can easily creep 
out, while no other insect can creep in. The 
structure of the cocoon is shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. The larva of the Emperor 
Moth may generally be found upon the heath. 
The form of the antennae is shown in cut G, 
fig- 3 > Pag 6 17. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE GEOMETER MOTHS. 



We now come to the Geometry or Loopers, a 
very large family of Moths, which derive their 
name from the curious mode of progression em- 
ployed by the larvae. 

The name of Geornetrse signifies " earth 
measurers," and is given to them for the follow- 
ing reasons : — 

Instead of crawling like other caterpillars, they 
seize some object with their front legs, and then 
draw up the tail so as to form the body into a 
loop. They then grasp with the claspers, or false 
legs at the end of the body, and stretch themselves 
out to seize another object with the front legs. 
Thus they have a fanciful resemblance to those 
Indian devotees who "measure the way" to their 
place of worship by prostrating themselves on 
the ground, marking the spot where their out- 
stretched hands rest, placing their feet on that 
spot, and prostrating themselves afresh. 

The more popular name of Looper is given to 
them because the body is drawn up in a loop at 
every step. 



46 SWALLOW-TAILED MOTH. 

The power of grasp displayed by these cater- 
pillars is enormous in proportion to the size of 
the creature. Some of the Geometrse, which are 
coloured greenish brown, are in the habit of 
grasping a branch with their hind claspers, and 
stretching themselves out in a straight line. 
This position they will retain for hours together, 
and look so exactly like twigs that even the 
caterpillar-hunting birds are deceived, and pass 
them by. 

One of the best examples of this description 
of caterpillars is the larva of the insect that 
heads the Geometrpe, namely, the Swallow- 
tailed Moth (Ourapteryx sambucata). As its 
specific name implies, the caterpillar is found on 
the elder, though it is not confined to that tree, 
but sometimes takes to several other trees and 
plants. It is brown in colour, with a few stripes 
along the sides, and, when it is stretched out stiff 
from a branch, it has the most singular resem- 
blance to a twig, the knobs upon its body looking 
like buds. 

The Moth derives its popular name of Swallow- 
tail from the peculiar form of the hind-wings, 
which are prolonged into points something like 
those of the swallow-tail butterfly. 

The wings are of a uniform pale primrose 
yellow. The fore-wings have a dark greenish 
streak beyond the centre, and another inside it 
passing on across to the inner angle of the hind- 
wings. The hind-wings terminate in a tail. The 
thorax and abdomen are uniform with the wings, 
the latter slightly marked transversely with dark 
greenish stripes. (See Plate IV fig. 5.) 

These colours are very delicate, and the wings 



ORANGE MOTH. 47 

are very thin and fragile. The insect is ex- 
ceedingly common, and may be taken in the 
dusk of the evening as it flies about, and also 
captured in the daytime by beating the bushes in 
which it lies hidden during the hours of day- 
light. When Bagley "Wood near Oxford was in its 
prime, this Moth was continually flying out of the 
bushes as the entomologist passed among them. 
This Moth is the sole British representative of 
its family, the Ourapterydse. 

Of the next family, the Ennomidas, we have 
more than twenty examples, four of which will 
be found in this book. 

The first of these is that exceedingly variable 
insect, the Orange Moth (Angerona prunaria). 
Not only is there a marked difference between 
the colours of the sexes, the wings of the male 
being dark orange, while those of the female 
are yellow, but in many instances the brown 
takes the place of the yellow or orange, the 
original colour only showing itself in bands or 
blotches. 

The caterpillar is as variable as the moth, and 
has very much the same colours, brown always 
predominating. It may be generally found on 
the blackthorn and beech, but also feeds upon 
the plum, from which circumstance it takes the 
name of prunaria. Independently of the darker 
colour, the male may be known by the beauti- 
fully-pectinated antennas. The expanse of the 
wings is nearly two inches. (See Plate IV fig. 4.) 

Another common species is the Light Emerald 
Moth (Metrocampa margaritata), so called from 
the colour of its wings, which are of a delicate 



48 



BEIMSTONE MOTH. 



green, traversed by narrow white stripes, two 
stripes crossing the fore- wings and only one the 
hind-wings. It is about the same size as the 
preceding insect. 

Mr. Newman states that he has found the 
caterpillar upon the broom, but thinks that it may 
be a general feeder. It is remarkable for having 
six claspers at the end of the body instead of 
four, which is the usual number in the larvae of 
Geometrae, and is olive green, with a dark line 
along the back and a series of whitish marks 
along the sides. 

The Brimstone Moth (Rumia cratcegatd) is 
still more common, and 
may be found plentifully 
throughout the greater 
part of the summer. It 
; £ a very pretty insect, 
the wings being of a light 
brimstone yellow, and the 
" costal margin " of the 
fore-wings being adorned 
with some reddish brown 
spots. The caterpillar 
is plentiful in white- 
thorn hedges, and is re- 
markable for the fact of 
having eight pairs of 
claspers, and only using two pairs. 

Less conspicuous is the Scorched Wing Moth 
(Eurymene dolobraria), an insect which derives 
its name from the colour of the upper wings, 
which look exactly as if they were made of 
irregularly scorched paper. The figure on Plate 
V fig. 3, will give a good idea of its appearance, 




Brimstone Moth Larva. 



BORDERED BEAUTY. 49 

and will show the slightly angular form of the 
wings. The general colour is pale brown, and 
the slight lines that are seen crossing the wings 
are blackish brown. The hind-wings are also 
pale brown, but of a much lighter hue than the 
r.pper pair. 

The Moth may be found any time about mid- 
summer, and can mostly be taken in the neigh- 
bourhood of oak and beech, on which the cater- 
pillar feeds. 

The reader will observe that the angular form 
of the wings is found in a greater or less degree 
throughout the whole of the present family of 
Moths, which perhaps from this peculiarity 
have received the popular and rather fanciful 
name of Thorns. Some of these are known by 
other popular names, the worst of which is, that 
the name generally conveys no sort of idea of the 
insect. One of these Moths is the well-known 
Bordered Beauty (Epione apiciarid), one of the 
prettiest members of this family. It is much 
smaller than those which have already been 
described, being little more than an inch in 
expanse of wing. The peculiarity of this Moth 
is, that both pairs of wrings are surrounded by a 
broad band of purplish brown, the rest of the wings 
being orange. It flies about the end of summer 
and beginning of autumn, and is very common. 

A rather rarer species, the Dark Bordered 
Beauty (^Epione vespertaria), bears some re- 
semblance to the preceding insect, but may be 
known from it by the purple-brown dots which 
are scattered over the orange part of the wing. 
The wings of the female are yellow instead of 
orange. 



60 LUNAR THORN. 

We now pass on to the Lunar Thor« (Selcnia 
lunaria), so called from the brown semilunar 
marks at the tips of the wings. A figure of the 
female is given in Plate V fig. 2. The male has 
pectinated antennae, and the wings are much 
darker. The general colour is pale reddish 
brown, barred with a darker brown. Upon the 
bar that crosses the middle of the upper wings 
is a tiny crescent-shaped mark nearly white. A 
similar, but paler mark occurs in the band that 
crosses the hinder wings. 

The insect flies in the beginning of summer, 
and the larvae can be taken on the blackthorn at 
the end of autumn. 

There is another Moth which may easily be 
mistaken for the preceding insect. This is the 
Purple Thorn (Selenia illustraria), which is very 
similarly coloured, has the dark brown mark at 
the tip of the wing, the dark band across the 
wings, and the semilunar white mark. There is, 
however, a decided purple hue about the basal 
half of each wing, which serves to distinguish it 
from its congener. The dark band, too, is more 
decidedly marked. 

Last of the Thorn Moths comes that pretty 
and rather conspicuous insect, the Feathered 
Thorn {Himera pennaria). See Plate V fig. 1. 
This Moth is about an inch and three-quarters 
in span of wing, and the antennas of the male 
insect are thickly feathered, whence the specific 
name. In the female they are simple. Fore- 
wings pale reddish grey, with three distinct 
transverse blackish bands, margins wavy, not 
scalloped. Hind-wings pale greyish yellow at 
base, deepening into ruddy oclm and thence 



FEATHERED THORN. 51 

into blackish grey at the margin. Thorax an(f 
abdomen similarly coloured of a pale yellowisii 
grey. 

There is a conspicuous spot at the tip of tha 
fore-wings, white in the male and grey in the 
female. The beautiful antennse of the male are 
remarkable for the white hue of the shaft, which 
contrasts prettily with the brown featherings. 
The wings of the female are narrower than those 
of the male. The Moth, which is plentiful in 
most parts of England, flies about the end of 
autumn, and the caterpillar may be taken 
towards the end of spring, as it feeds upon 
the oak. 

The reader may as well bear in mind that the 
oak is a perfect treasury of caterpillar life. The 
simplest mode of taking the larvse is to have a 
sheet held under the branches, and then strike 
them smartly with a stick, when a wonderful 
number of caterpillars will come tumbling into 
the sheet. 

For the higher branches, the sheet cannot be 
used, as the fall would damage the larvae, many of 
which are peculiarly delicate, and cannot endure 
rough usage. In these cases, the butterfly-net 
is useful, being held under the branch with one 
hand, while the other hand taps the bough with 
a stick. Sometimes, when the entomologist is 
obliged to hold a branch with one hand, the net 
itself can be neatly tapped under the bough" so 
as to catch the caterpillars as they fall. 

We now come to some of those remarkable 
Moths the males of which are winged and 
beautifully marked, while the females are either 



52 PALE BKINDLED BEAUTY. 

wholly or partially wingless. Practically, they 
are wingless, for even in those cases where the 
wings are tolerably conspicuous they are much 
too small for the purpose of flight. 

The first of these insects is the Pale Brindled 
Beauty (Phigalia pilosaria), Plate V figs. 4 
and 5. 

It is very difficult to describe this insect, as its 
colours are very indeterminate, and scarcely any 
two entomologists have described it in exactly 
the same terms. 

Unlike the angled wings of the preceding in- 
sects, those of the present family, Amphydasydae, 
are nearly rounded. The fore-wings are a pale 
reddish grey, with a very faint tinge of green, 
and crossed by four indistinct bars of a darker 
green or brown. The hind-wings are some- 
what similarly coloured, but are paler. 

There is an odd and almost indescribable look 
about the wings, which have a hairy or "pilose" 
appearance, giving rise to the specific title pilosa, 
and they look much as if they had been much worn 
and rubbed. The expanse of wing is about two 
inches, or a little less. The male is a very com- 
mon insect, and it flies about the beginning of 
spring. 

As for the female, it is so odd-looking a crea- 
ture that no one except an entomologist would 
take it for a Moth. A figure of it may be seen 
on Plate V fig. 5. 

The wings are totally absent, so that the in- 
sect is obliged to restrict herself to the tree in 
which she has passed her caterpillar life. It is 
a very inconspicuous insect, and would readily 
evade the observation of any one whose eye was 



BELTEI. BEAUTY. 53 

not trained to perceive it. Indeed, this and 
other wingless females were originally discovered 
by rearing the caterpillars, and this is by far the 
best method which the young entomologist can 
follow. The caterpillar feeds on oak, and is said 
to be found on several other trees. 

In connection with this insect, I must men- 
tion another, which derives some interest from 
the fact that it w r as only discovered to be a 
British species in 1863. It is the Belted 
Beauty (Nyssia zonaria), so called from the 
manner in which the black abdomen of the per- 
fect insect is crossed with six orange belts. The 
male is a pretty little insect, the wings being 
grey, boldly streaked with darker grey and brown. 

As far as is at present known, it is a local 
insect, all the specimens having been taken in 
Cheshire, near the sea. In those places, how- 
ever, it is tolerably plentiful, and considerable 
numbers of both sexes have been bred from the 
caterpillars. Eight specimens were sent to me 
in one box, so that the Moth can now scarcely 
take rank among the rarities. 

A closely-allied species, the Small Brindled 
Beauty (Nyssia hispidaria), is common in several 
localities, and in the New Forest, where the 
caterpillar may be found feeding on the oak, and 
the pupa dug from the roots of that tree. This 
Moth, though much smaller, is exactly like the 
Pale Brindled Beauty. 

Next we come to the handsome, though not 
brilliantly coloured insect, the Oak Beauty 
(Amphydasis prodromaria). The fore-wings are 
whitish-grey, speckled, and in parts clouded, with 
black. The hind-wings are similarly marked, 



54 PEPPERED MOTH. 

but paler. The thorax and abdomen are stout 
and strikingly hairy. As is the case with many 
Moths, the antenna? of the male are feathered, 
while those of the female are simple. The ex- 
panse of wing is about two inches. 

The caterpillar is one of the many oak-feeders, 
and the Moth flies at the beginning of spring. 
A male insect is shown at Plate V. fig. 6. The 
wings of the female are somewhat different in 
their markings. 

At fig. 7 of the same plate is seen a figure 
of the female Peppered Moth (Amphydasis [or 
Bistori\ betularia). By looking at this and the 
preceding Moth, few indications are perceived 
that the insects belong to the Geornetrse, and that 
the caterpillars are, as in this case, true Loopers. 

The popular name of this insect exactly re- 
presents its appearance, the wings being greyish, 
sprinkled profusely with blackish brown dots 
and streaks, the markings being as variable in 
different specimens as if the black marks had 
been shaken at random out of a pepper-castor. 

The caterpillar, which feeds on many trees, 
such as the lime, birch, oak, &c, is as variable 
in appearance as the perfect insect, the ordinary 
hue being brownish, with a tinge of green or 
mahogany. The pupa may be dug out of the 
ground at the foot of the trees on which it feeds 
while in the larval condition. The Moth flies 
about May. The male Peppered Moth is smaller 
and darker than the female, and has the antennae 
deeply feathered. 

There is a closely-allied insect, the Brindled 
Beauty (Biston hirtaria), which is in some 
years much too plentiful to please tbe gardener 



LARGE EMERALD MOTH, 5&' 

the caterpillars feeding on the plum, the pear, 
and other fruit trees, and sometimes occurring in 
Buch numbers that the trees are seriously injured, 
and the crop of fruit either lessened or totally 
destroyed. 

The wings are greyish brown, and the fore- 
wings are banded with six blackish belts, the 
hind-wings having only three belts. Both pairs 
of wings have a sort of woolly look, owing to 
the number of hair-like scales upon their sur- 
face. As it is very plentiful in London, it has 
gained the popular name of Cockney. It is one 
of the early-flying Moths, being seen in March 
and April. 

"Want of space compels us to omit the family 
of Boarmidse, and proceed to the typical family 
of the Loopers, the Geometridse. 

Chief among them is the Large Emerald 
Moth (Geometra papilionaria), certainly one of 
the handsomest of its kind, and pre-eminent 
both in size and colour. The expanse of wing 
is about two inches and a quarter. Both pairs 
of wings, abdomen, and thorax are uniform bright 
grass or emerald green, with two parallel trans- 
verse wavy lines of a lighter shade. The abdo- 
men is slender. 

Unfortunately for collectors, the colour of this 
Moth is as fleeting as it is beautiful, and the 
greatest care must be taken to keep it in the 
dark, in order to prevent the bright emerald 
green from fading away until scarcely an idea 
can be formed of the original colouring. This 
sensitiveness to light is found in the colouring 
of many insects, but there are very few in which 



56 GRASS EMERALD. 

the tints fly so quickly as is the case with the 
present insect. 

The caterpillar is also graen, being one of the 
few instances in which the larva and the perfect 
insect coincide in colour. It feeds on various 
trees, the birch* and beech being perhaps its 
favourites, and the Moth flies in midsummer. 
Woods are the best places in which to search for 
this beautiful Moth, a figure of which is shown 
on Plate V fig. 8. 

The present family contains some eight spe- 
cies, all going by the popular name of Emerald, 
though the title is not so well deserved as by 
the insect just described. The Grass Emerald 
(Pseudoterpna cytisaria) is one of them. It is 
much smaller than the Large Emerald, and has 
its wings of a greyish green, with a pair of dark 
bands crossing the fore-pair. Mr. Newman men- 
tions in his valuable work on the British Moths, 
that " when this Moth comes out of the chry- 
salis in wet weather, every part of it is suffused 
with a red tinge." 

Another is the Common Emerald (Hemithea 
thymiaria). 

In this pretty little Moth, all the wings are 
dark green, and are marked by a slight wavy 
white line. The hind-wings are boldly angled 
at their tips, so that they approach the swallow- 
tail form, and they are figured with greyish white 
speckled with darkish grey or brown. 

A tolerably common example of the family 
Acidalidas is found in the V Moth (Halia wa- 
varia), which is here shown of the natural size. 

The colouring is not easy of description, but 
it is mostly grey, diversified with numerous 



V MOTH. 



57 




blown markings, and having a peculiar purplish 

bloom. The larva is 

exceedingly variable in 

colour, some specimens 

being slate blue, and 

others dark olive green. 

It may, however, be 

known by the numerous 

black knobs with which 

its body is covered, each 

knob supporting a single s },x " Ul - 

stiff hair. This caterpillar is to be found on the 

gooseberry. 

We are again obliged to omit one or two 
families, including the whole of the Caberidse 
and Macaridse, among which are a great number 
of the "Wave" and other Moths, and to pro- 
ceed to the Vestal (Ster?-ha sacraria), a Moth 
belonging to the family Fidonidae. A figure of 
this Moth may be seen on Plate VI. fig. 2. 

The wings of the male are pale yellow, diver- 
sified with a pinkish stripe along the upper edge, 
and another stripe crossing the wing diagonally. 
The antennae of the male are feathered for rather 
more than half their length, while those of the 
female are simple, as seen in the illustration. 

The caterpillar feeds on'several plants, such as 
the common dock, and is rather a pretty larva, 
its colours being green of several shades, with a 
pale stripe running along the back. When it 
has finished feeding, it envelopes itself in a silken 
hammock fastened to the stems of the plant on 
which it fed. The Moth flies at the end of the 
summer and beginning of autumn. 



58 GRASS WAVE. 

A more abundant example of this family is 
the Grass Wave (Aspilates strigillaria). It is 
a much larger insect than the preceding species, 
and is very prettily though not brilliantly 
marked. The general colour of the wings is 
grey, peppered with tiny dark dots and crossed 
diagonally with light brown stripes, three on 
each wing. The caterpillar feeds on the common 
ling, and the Moth flies about the middle or end 
of June. 

The next insect is the common Currant or 
Magpie Moth {Abraxas grossulariata), one of its 
popular names being derived from the nature of 
its food, and the other from the magpie-like 
character of its markings. 

To describe the exact colour and positions of 
its markings is utterly impossible, on account of 
the extreme variations to which it is subject. It 
is, indeed, so variable a Moth in its aspect, that 
even a beginner at Moth-hunting is sure to find 
several well-marked varieties, and will sometimes 
mistake them for different species. The general 
nature of the markings may however be described 
as follows : — The fore- wings are white or whitish 
grey, and have a yellow band crossing them in 
the middle, and a patch of the same colour at 
the base. Over the wings are spread numerous 
black or dark brown spots, arranged without any 
particular order, but usually following the line of 
the margin, and grouped on either side of the 
yellow stripe. The hind- wings are marked in 
much the same manner, with the exception of 
the yellow stripe. 

Sometimes the black spots are so large and so 



CURRANT MOTH. 59 

numerous that they cover nearly the entire ■wing ; 
sometimes the whole of the wing is black except 
a patch at the base ; while in some specimens the 
marks are so few and so pale that they scarcely 
seem to exist at all, and the Moth is nearly 
white. Yet, in spite of these many varieties, 
there is a sort of character about the Moth which 
renders it recognizable at once to a tolerably 
practised eye, though a beginner might easily be 
deceived. The figure on Plate VI. fig. 1, gives a 
good idea of the general appearance of this Moth. 




Currant Moth, Lam and Pupa. 

It is one of the commonest British insects, — far 
too common, indeed, to please the lovers of gar- 
dens. The caterpillar feeds on the currant and 
gooseberry, preferring the former, and may in 
some years be found in hundreds upon the leaves 
and twigs. It is rather a pretty caterpillar, and 
partakes much of the colouring which distin- 
guishes the perfect insect. The body is cream- 
coloured, partly ringed and spotted with black, 
so that it would be exceedingly conspicuous were 
it not for its habit of keeping itself very still, 
and generally in a line with a twig. 

As is the case with many silk-spinning cater- 



60 CLOUDED MAGPIE. 

pillars, it uses its thread-producing powers as a 
means for securing its safety ; and if the branches 
be tapped, or if it be suddenly alarmed, it fixes 
a thread to a twig, and quickly lowers itself to- 
wards the ground, swinging backwards and for- 
wards at the end of its thread until the fear of 
danger has passed away, when it returns to its 
branch, and resumes the meal on which it is 
almost perpetually engaged. 

The pupa or chrysalis of this Moth is dark 
mahogany-brown in colour, banded with yellow, 
so that in this insect we have the curious and 
nearly unique fact that the larva, the pupa, and 
the Moth are all marked with the same hues. 

Another of the Magpie Moths is seen on Plate 
VI. fig. 4. This is the Clouded Magpie (Abraxas 
almata), an insect which is, to my mind, a hand- 
somer one than its more conspicuous relative. 

The body of this insect is marked much like 
that of the common Magpie Moth, and the colours 
of the wings are of a similar character, though in 
general much paler, and having much more 
yellow in them. The arrangement of the marks 
can be understood better from a reference to 
the figure, than by a detailed description. The 
darker patches are yellowish brown, each re- 
lieved with silver grey, while the lighter mark- 
ings are blackish grey. 

This rather pretty caterpillar feeds on the 
elm. Its colour is grey with a slight tinge of 
blue, dotted with black, and with a yellow streak 
on each side. 

In some parts of England this Moth is nearly 
as plentiful as the preceding species, whereas in 
jthers it is seldom seen. About Oxford it may 



WINTER MOTH. 61 

be reckoned as one of the varieties. It appears 
about midsummer. 

On Plate VI. fig. 6, may be seen a figure of a 
Moth -which is far more pretty and plentiful than 
agreeable. This is the Winter Moth (Ckeima- 
tobia brumata), which, as its name implies, is one 
of the few Lepidoptera that venture abroad during 
the winter months. Like all moths and butter- 
flies, the Winter Moth cannot endure wind, and 
a north-easter is utterly detestable to it. But, on 
tolerably still days, it may be often seen flitting 
along hedges during the two or three last months 
of the year, occasionally settling, and, if startled, 
slipping through the hedge so quietly that it 
often escapes capture, though it is decidedly slow 
of wing. 

This Moth is one of our most destructive 
insects, the caterpillar being particularly fond of 
fruit trees ; and in some districts, especially those 
in which apples, plums, and cherries are much 
cultivated, the young larva? cut their way into the 
buds, and destroy in this manner a great propor- 
tion, and sometimes the whole, of the crop. 

When they are too large to be hidden in the 
buds, they attack the young leaves, spinning 
threads round two or three of them in such a 
manner that the caterpillar may be concealed 
in them. The silken thread is also used by 
them as a means of safety ; for, if the branches 
be beaten or shaken, the caterpillars allow them- 
selves to drop, suspending themselves by their 
threads, and, when the clanger is over, climb up 
again to resume their ravages. 

The same threads are employed by them when 



62 WINTER MOTH 

they are full fed and about to undergo the change 
into the pupa. They let themselves down to 
the ground, burrow into the soil, undergo their 
transformation, and then ascend into the outer 
air in the perfect state. 

Fortunately for the proprietors of orchards, the 
female is without wings, so that she is obliged to 
creep up the trunks of the trees in order to lay her 
eggs, and may be intercepted by various means. 

The most effectual plan seems to be a coat of 
some sticky substance applied in a broad ring 
round the stem, and continually renewed as fast 
as it hardens. Mr. Newman recommends a mix 
ture of Stockholm tar and cart-grease. This, 
however, must only be applied in November and 
December, as it dries too fast in the warmer por 
tions of the year. When the female Moths try 
to ascend the tree, they are caught in the tar ; 
and in some places where the insect is plentiful, 
the tar-belt is as thickly covered with Winter 
Moths as is the " catch-'em-alive " of the street 
hawker with Hies. 

As it is probable that some of the insects may 
have escaped the tar, and have scaled the tree 
before it was applied, they may be seen by visit- 
ing "the trees after dark, and directing the light 
of a lantern upon the stems and lower branches. 
The males may be allowed to go free, but not a 
female should be permitted to escape, as each 
will produce, on an average, about a hundred 
caterpillars. 

The Winter Moth is one of the many insects 
that have devastated districts in which the small 
birds have been exterminated under the idea that 
they destroy the fruit. 



GREEN CARPET. 63 

The beautiful pectination of the antennse of 
the male Winter Moth is shown on cut H, fig. 
2, p. 37 

An example of the Carpet Moth is seen on 
Plate VI. fig. 5. This is the Green Carpet 
{Larentia pectinitaria), a pretty Moth which de- 
rives its popular name from the greenish hue 
that predominates in the colouring of the fore- 
wings. The thorax and abdomen are also greeD, 
the latter having each segment edged with white, 
and a row of black dots down the middle. The 
marks on the wings are blackish brown, and most 
of them have an edging of white. The larva 
feeds on the bed-straw, and seldom emerges from 
the roots, where it conceals itself. Six or seven 
species of Larentia are known to entomologists. 

Of the great genus Eupithecia, which includes 
more than forty species, two examples are given. 
The Moths that belong to this genus are called 
by the popular name of Pug Moths — why, is not 
easy to say. 

These Moths have both pairs of wings of a uni- 
form character of pattern, the lines or marks of 
the upper pair being generally repeated in the 
lower pair ; and as the colours are sober, and the 
Moths have a habit of fluttering themselves with 
out-stretched wings against tree trunks, palings, 
and similar other objects, they can only be detected 
by experienced eyes. Many of the species may 
be captured by striking a sharp blow upon any 
tree, post, or paling, when the startled moths fly 
off and may be taken in the net. Even with 
large trees, an energetic blow from the sole of 
the foot is sufficient to start the Moths. 



64 SMALL BRINDLED PUG. 

Our first example is the Small Brindled 
Pug, sometimes called the Shaded Pug (Eupi- 
thecia subumbratd), Plate VI. fig. 8. This, like all 
the Pug Moths, is a small insect, the figure being 
of the natural size. The fore-wings are dullish 
grey, rather darkened towards the margins. The 
hind-wings are coloured in much the same 
manner, but their tints are paler. 

Another species of this genus is seen on Plate 
VI. fig. 9. This is the Grey Pug (Eupithecia 
castigata). 

As its name implies, the general hue of the 
wings is grey, and the upper pair are covered 
with narrow wavy bands of blackish grey. The 
hind-wings are paler grey than the upper pair, 
and there is a slight discoidal spot, not marked 
in the figure. As is the case with most of the 
Pug Moths, the caterpillars of both these species 
burrow into the ground after they are full fed, 
and make for themselves an earthen cocoon. 

Some of these Pug Moths are extremely in- 
jurious to gardens and orchards. One of these 
insects, the Green Pug (Eupithecia rectangulata), 
is very plentiful in this country, the caterpillar 
infesting the apple and pear, among which trees 
it sometimes works great mischief, attacking the 
blossoms and buds, and so destroying the future 
fruit. The caterpillar is very small, and when it 
has entered an opening bud it draws the edges 
of the petals together, so that it is completely 
sheltered, and then proceeds to cut away the very 
heart of the flower, finishing by devouring the 
young fruit itself. 

The caterpillar even remains in the flower 
when it has finished feeding, and further pro- 



EARLY TOOTH-STRIPED MOTH. 65 

tects itself by spinning a silken cocoon, in which 
it remains until it changes into the perfect con- 
dition. The doable protection afforded by the 
shelter of the dried petals and the silken cocoon 
is needed because this flower, together with the 
injured fruit, is blown from the tree and falls to 
the ground. 

The colour of the fore-wings is green, diver- 
sified with a number of wavy dark lines, and 
there is generally a dark belt near the wing. 
The hind- wings are also greenish, and, as its 
name implies, this hue characterizes the whole 
of the body as well as the wings. It is, however, 
an exceedingly variable Moth, and many specimens 
have scarcely a tinge of green about them. 

On Plate VI. fig. 10, is seen the figure of the 
Early Tooth-Striped Moth (Lobophora lobu- 
lata). This Moth derives its specific name from 
the fact that in the male there is a small lobe at 
the base of the hind-wings. 

The rather pointed upper wings are pale grey, 
traversed by several wavy bands of dark grey, 
which, however, are in many cases so faint that 
they can hardly be seen. A row of black dots 
runs along the hind margin. 

The caterpillar of this Moth feeds on the honey- 
suckle and willow, and when full-fed descends to 
the ground, and thereupon spins a silken cocoon, 
in which it passes into the perfect state. I 
never bred this Moth, but Mr. Newman states 
that, when it is fresh from the chrysalis, it is 
sometimes of a beautiful bright green. As its 
popular name implies, this is one of the early 
Moths, making its appearance in April. 

F 



66 PURPLE BAR MOTH. 

One of our prettiest Geometer Moths is the 
Purple Bar (Melanihia ocellata), a figure of 
which may be seen on Plate VI. fig. 7. 

The colour of the fore-wings is a rich creamy 
white, crossed with a broad belt or bar of deep 
brown crossed with purple. There is also a tri- 
angular patch at the base of the same hue. 
There are also sundry smaller markings, which 
are of little consequence, especially as the broad 
purple-brown bar is sufficient to distinguish the 
Moth from any other insect, and the small marks 
are apt to be rather variable. The hind-wings 
are nearly white, as is the abdomen, the head 
and thorax being black. 

This is one of the summer Moths, and is found 
in June. The caterpillar feeds on the bed-straw, 
and if annoyed or alarmed drops into the ground, 
where it lies until it believes the danger to be 
over. When full-fed, it spins a web which binds 
together the stalks of the plant on which it has 
been feeding, and within this shelter it changes 
to the perfect state. 

Pretty and conspicuous as is the preceding 
Moth, it cannot be compared, as to the latter 
quality, with the Argent and Sable (Melanippe 
hastata), a Moth which is almost startling by the 
strong contrast of colours which it exhibits, and 
the bold manner in which the opposite hues of 
deep black and pure white are arranged. A 
figure of this Moth is shown in Plate VI. fig. 
11 ; and as the colours are simply black and 
white, a glance at the figure will give a better 
idea of the insect than any amount of detailed 
description. 



ARGENT AND SABLE MOTH. 67 

The ordinary arrangement of colours is shown 
in this figure ; but, like many Moths, this in- 
sect is liable to variation, and, although the 
colours remain the same, their proportion is 
altered, the white predominating greatly over 
the black. 

The caterpillar feeds chiefly on the birch, 
drawing the leaves together with silken threads, 
and living in the midst of them, where it finds 
at the same time shelter and food. The Moth 
appears about June. 

The reader must remember, by the way, that 
the time mentioned for the appearance of any 
insect can never be definitely fixed, and must only 
be looked upon as an approximation to exact- 
ness. The same species appears at different times 
in different parts of England, and the time of 
appearance is always hastened when the weather 
is warm, and delayed when it is cold. 

The genus Melanippe is a large one, and con- 
tains some singularly pretty Moths. There is, 
for example, the Small Argent and Sable 
(Melanippe tristata), in which the wings are 
almost entirely black, a broad white bar crossing 
their centres, accompanied by several very narrow 
white streaks. The caterpillar of this Moth 
(which is much smaller than the preceding 
insect) feeds on the bed-straw, and when it is full- 
fed it descends the stem of the plant on which 
it has fed, spins a cocoon near the ground, and 
therein undergoes its changes. 

Another example of this genus is shown on 
Plate VI. fig. 12. This is the Chalk Carpet 
(Melanippe procellata). 

The ground colour of the fore- wings is cream- 
p 2 



68 CHALK CARPET MOTH. 

white, and the bold and conspicuous marks are 
rich brown, sometimes assuming a mahogany 
hue. The hind-wings are whitish grey, with a 
few wavy lines of a darker grey. 

This pretty Moth is one of the summer insects, 
seldom occurring earlier than May or later than 
the beginning of August, though exceptional 
cases will sometimes occur. In some parts of 
England it is very plentiful, in others moderately 
so, and in others scarce ; while in some, such as 
the northern counties, it is scarcely if ever seen. 
The caterpillar feeds on the well-known wild 
clematis, popularly called the Traveller's Joy, 
and remains on the plant until it attains its 
perfect state, passing the winter in a silken 
cocoon. 

To this genus belong the Carpet Moths proper, 
though the name is given to several Moths belong- 
ing to other genera. They derive their popular 
name from the distribution of their colour- 
ing, which is fancifully thought to bear some 
resemblance to the patterns on carpets. It is 
to be wished that the designers of carpets would, 
in their turn, take their patterns from the 
moth-wings, as in that case we should avoid 
the daily offence to artistic eyes caused by 
the glaring patterns and ill-arranged colouring 
which disfigure the carpets of nine houses out 
of ten. 

The most plentiful of these Moths is the 
Garden Carpet (Melanippe fluctuata), an insect 
which is perhaps one of the most common of all 
the Geometer Moths. Like many other- plentiful 
Moths, it has two broods, one in the spring and 
the other in the autumn. 



GARDEN CARPET MOTH. 69 

The colour of the fore-wings is grey, with a 
patch of dark grey-brown at the base, then a grey 
space, then a broad belt of brown, then grey 
again, and then an irregular dark stripe round 
the margin. 



CHAPTEE III. 

CUSPIDATES. 

We have now completed our survey of tha 
great tribe of Geometer Moths, and proceed to 
the next tribe, that of the Cuspidates, so called 
because in very many species the shape of 
the larva, instead of being rounded, is scooped 
and grooved so as to produce several projecting 
points or "cusps." We shall see some examples 
of such larvae in the course of the following 
pages. 

As a rule, the Cuspidates are very much 
larger than the Geometers, and indeed many of 
them rank among our largest Moths. The larvse 
are, therefore, very large ; but in spite of their 
size are not conspicuous, their tints harmonizing 
so well with those of the plants on which they 
live, that it is almost impossible to detect them. 
Moreover, they have an odd habit of remaining 
perfectly still for a wonderfully long time, some- 
times retaining the same position for several days 
together, so that they possess a similar mode of 
defence to that which is employed by so many of 
the Geometer caterpillars. 



PEBBLE HOOK-TIP MOTH. 71 

Without further comment, we proceed to our 
first example of the Cuspidates, — namely, the 
Pebble Hook-tip (Platypteryx falcula), a figure 
of which is seen on Plate VII. fig. 1. The 
specific name, Falcula, signifies a little sickle, and 
the reader will see by reference to the figure that 
the name has been given to it in consequence of 
the curved shape of the fore-wings. 

This is a tolerably plentiful insect, and is 
double-brooded, one set making its appearance 
about May and the other about September. The 
colour of the upper wings is reddish brown, 
irregularly striped with a darker tint. There is 
always a round patch of this dark colour in the 
middle of the wing. The lower wings are much 
paler than the upper, and are crossed by five 
slight bars of a rather darker hue. 

The larva of the Pebble Hook-tip feeds on 
the birch, and has a way of doubling over the 
leaves and tying them with silken threads so as 
to form a kind of house for itself. Two other 
species of Hook-tip Moths are known in Eng- 
land, — namely, the Oak Hook-tip and the Barred 
Hook-tip. 

We now come to a singularly interesting 
insect, popularly called the Puss Moth (Cerura, 
or Dicranura, Vinula). A figure of the female 
insect is seen on Plate VII. fig. 3 ; the male 
resembles it in general appearance, but is smaller 
in the body, rather darker in the markings of the 
wings, and the antennae are strongly pectinated. 
The general arrangement of the markings are to 
be seen from the figure, and it will suffice to say 
that their colour is blackish, and that the ground 



72 



PUSS MOTH. 



hue of the wings is white. The body is covered 
with soft and downy feathers, which, from their 
fur-like appearance, have earned for the insect 
its popular name of Puss Moth. 

Pretty as is this insect, it is in its larval and 
pupal stages that it is most interesting. The 
larva is a most singular-looking caterpillar, whose 
general appearance can be understood from the 
accompanying illustration. The colour is a 
beautiful leaf -green, diversified by a narrow 




Caterpillar of the Fuss Moth. 

white stripe that forms a sort of St. Andrew's 
cross upon the body, the point of junction being 
on the hump. 

The most remarkable part of this creature is 
the tail, which is terminated by a couple of 
rough, horn-like appendages. If the caterpillar 
be irritated, it projects from each of these horns 
a slender scarlet thread, which has rather a 
menacing aspect, though in fact it is perfectly 



PUSS MOTH. 73 

harmless. When several of these larva are 
kept in captivity, they have an odd habit of 
nibbling at each other's tails and gnawing them 
almost to the root. They also eat their own 
cast skins after each moult, just as do the frogs 
and toads. The attitude in which the caterpillar 
is drawn is a favourite one, and is so unlike that 
of most caterpillars, that few persons who are 
unacquainted with entomology will venture to 
handle so strange- looking a creature. To add to- 
the threatening aspect of the larva, it has the 
power of ejecting from an aperture under the 
head a fluid which may perhaps have the power 
of keeping off certain foes, but which has no 
effect upon the human skin. 

The caterpillar feeds upon the willow, and 
when it is full-fed it crawls down the trunk of 
the tree and gnaws a slight oval hollow in the 
bark. With the fragments of the bark and a 
glutinous secretion which it ejects, it constructs a 
cocoon of wonderful hardness, so hard, indeed, 
that a strong knife is required to make any im- 
pression on it. Being formed of the bark, it is 
so closely assimilated in colour and general ap- 
pearance to the trunk of the tree that detection 
is almost impossible. 

On the first occasion that I ever possessed one 
of these larvae, it was put to great inconvenience. 
It had been brought to my rooms at college while 
I was out, and the servant had placed it on the 
stone mantelpiece and covered it with an inverted 
tumbler to prevent it from escaping. The larva 
happened to be full-fed, and was constrained by 
instinct to prepare its cocoon. It could find no- 
material either in the tumbler or the mantel- 



74 SALLOW KITTEN MOTH. 

piece, so it was forced to content itself with the 
gummy secretion alone. "With this it contrived 
to form a cocoon partly attached to the glass and 
partly to the stone on which it rested, and so 
hard was the cocoon, which was nearly as trans- 
parent as the tumbler itself, that the glass was 
fixed tightly down, and could not be removed 
without much difficulty. 

Seeing how hard is the cocoon, it is a matter 
of wonder that the moth should ever be able to 
force its way through the walls. This, however, 
it does in a mode which has not been satisfac- 
torily explained, and contrives to creep through 
a hole which scarcely seems capable of permit- 
ting the passage of an insect half the size of the 
Puss Moth. These remarkable cocoons may be 
found upon the trunks of willow-trees, seldom 
less than two feet from the ground or more than 
four. The Moth appears towards the end of 
spring and beginning of summer. 

Another Moth of this genus is the Sallow 
Kitten (Dicranura furcula), a figure of which is 
seen on Plate VII. fig. 2. This Moth is called 
the Kitten, because it is so much smaller than 
the Puss. As its popular name implies, it feeds 
upon the various sallow when in the larval state. 
The caterpillar is much like that of the Puss 
Moth, but very much smaller and rather differ- 
ently coloured. It follows the example of the 
Puss larva in spinning a cocoon on the bark of 
the tree upon which it feeds, but, instead of 
making a projecting cocoon, it prefers to find a 
crevice in the bark into which it can creep and 
fill up the crevice nearly level with the rest 
of the bark, so that the cocoon is even more 



LOBSTER MOTH. 



75 



difficult of discovery than that of the Puss 
Moth. 

Two other species of Kitten Moth are known, 
the Poplar Kitten and the Alder Kitten. They 
all appear at the beginning of summer. 

Our next insect, though its appearance has 
nothing remarkable about it in the perfect state, 
is, when a larva, one of the strangest-looking 




Caterpillar of Lobster Moth. 

creatures that can be imagined, far surpassing in 
this respect even the Puss and Kitten larvae. 
This is the Lobster Moth (Stauropus fagi), 
which is shown on Plate VII. fig. 7. 

The popular name of this insect is derived 
from the extraordinary shape of the caterpillar, 
which is fancifully thought to bear some re- 
semblance to a lobster. A figure of this most 
grotesque larva is here given. 



76 RANNOCH SPRAWLER. 

Putting aside the general shape of the larva, 
the peculiarity which makes it so unlike the 
generality of caterpillars is the extreme length of 
the second and third pair of legs, which really 
look as if they do not belong to it, and have 
been borrowed from some other insect. Some- 
times the caterpillar contracts its body very much 
more than is shown in the illustration (page 75), 
and it sits with its head thrown back until it 
nearly touches the tail, and the three segments 
below the head pressed closely together. The 
general colour of this caterpillar is brown, diversi- 
fied by two dark stripes along the back and a few 
blackish marks upon the sides. 

The caterpillar feeds indifferently upon the 
oak and birch, and when full-fed spins up 
several leaves by way of a resting-place, in 
which it remains until it changes into the perfect 
state. Even when the leaves fall, no injury is 
done to the enclosed pupa, the dried leaves flut- 
tering gently to the ground. September is a good 
month for finding this strange caterpillar. 

The colour of the Moth is greyish-brown, 
blotched and spotted with a darker hue. The 
antennae of the male are boldly pectinated for 
rather more than one-half of their length, the 
remaining portion being filamentous. 

On Plate VII. fig. 4 is seen a figure of a Moth, 
which goes by the odd name of the Eannoch 
Sprawler (Petasia nubeculosa), which derives its 
popular name from the only locality in which 
it has been found. The figure represents the 
female insect, the male being smaller, and having 
the antensen pectinated. 



BUFF-TIP MOTH. 77 

Although not a brilliant insect, the colours are 
pleasingly arranged, and consist of various shades 
of brown, grey, and white. 

The caterpillar feeds upon the birch, and then 
makes its appearance in early spring. 

A much more common example of this genus 
is the only other species known in England, — 
namely, the Sprawler (Petasia cassinea). 

The popular name of this Moth is, like those 
of the preceding insects, derived from the larva, 
which has an odd habit of sprawling about when 
disturbed, as if it were unable to gain its feet. 
This larva, although not so grotesque as those 
of the Puss and Lobster Moths, is yet rather a 
strange-looking one, the end of the body being 
pointed and bent suddenly downwards. 

It feeds on the oak, and, when full-fed, 
descends to the earth and burrows into the 
ground, where it remains until it has attained 
the perfect state. 

A small but interesting family comes next in 
order, — namely, the Pygseridae, of which one 
example is the common Buff-tip Moth (Pygasra 
hucephala). 

A figure of this Moth is given on Plate VII. 
fig. 10, as it appears with its wings spread. 
When the wings are closed, it presents an 
appearance almost as different as does the 
Lappet Moth, which has been already described. 
The wings are pressed closely to the body, and 
almost conceal it, the little head being tucked 
under the large thorax, and the whole aspect 
of the Moth very much resembling a piece of 
brown, withered stick. A figure of the Moth 



78 BUFF-TIP MOTH. 

at rest is here given, so that the reader may 
compare it with that of the flying Moth on 
Plate VII. 

The popular name of the Moth is given to it 
on account of the buff-coloured patch at the tips 
of the upper Avings. The general hue of the 
wings is grey, and they are covered by several 
darker hues, one of them separating the buff- 
coloured patch from the rest of the wing. The 
lower wings are also grey, but with a yellowish 
tinge, and the body and thorax are brownish 




Buff-tip Moth. 

buff. Iu the male insect the antennae are pec- 
tinated, as seen upon the plate, but in the female 
they are simply thread-like. 

The caterpillar feeds upon many trees, and, in 
some places where the Moth is plentiful, does 
much damage to the foliage. These caterpillars 
are gregarious, always feeding in company, and 
sometimes travelling in long processions, mar- 
shalled as correctly as disciplined troops. 

It is rather a pretty and conspicuous cater- 
pillar j but, owing to its fondness for the upper 



BUFF-TIP MOTH. 79 

branches of trees, is seldom seen until it is full- 
fed and descends for the purpose of seeking a 
refuge for its impending change. The most 
characteristic point about this larva is the series 
of black, short lines which are drawn along the 
body, as if with a pen and ruler, and which 
curiously resemble in their order the arrange- 
ment in which the larvas sometimes march. 

About the end of July or beginning of August 
these caterpillars may be seen by hundreds, 
crawling rapidly over the hard ground for the 
purpose of finding a convenient resting-place. 
At this time of year the caterpillars are quite a 
nuisance in my own house, which is situated in 
Kent, crawling in at every open door and 
window, and especially traversing the porch in 
such numbers that it is scarcely possible to leave 
or enter the house without crushing some of 
them under foot. 

The favourite place of refuge is the foot ot 
some tree, but the chrysalis is so hardy that it 
scarcely stands in need of any hiding-place, spin- 
ning no cocoon, and seeking no shelter, but 
simply casting off its larval skin and appearing 
in the pupal state. The young entomologist 
is sure to collect plenty of these chrysalides 
when he goes hunting for specimens, and to find 
his boxes filled with Buff-tips where he expects 
a whole series of different Moths. Practice, 
however, makes perfect, and a brief experience 
enables the collector to detect the Buff-tip 
chrysalis and leave it alone in favour of more 
valuable specimens. 

The name of bucepliala or bull-headed, is given 
to this Moth on account of its appearance when at 



'80 WHITE PROMINENT MOTH. 

rest. In this position, the head is almost hidden, 
and the thorax looks very much as if it were 
a large " bull "-head, the resemblance being in- 
creased by a dark spot on either side, which 
might be taken for the eye by any one who was 
inexperienced in entomology. 

The three other species of this family are the 
Chocolate-tip (Clostera curtula), the Scarce 
Chocolate-tip (Clostera anachoreta), and the 
Small Chocolate-tip (Clostera reclusa). 

The next family, that of the Notodontidae, 
contains a very few genera, but one of them, the 
typical genus, embraces some twelve species. A 
good, though not very common example of this 
genus, is seen on Plate VII. fig. 6. This is the 
White Prominent (Notodonta bicolor), some- 
times called the Orange V Moth, on account of 
its rather peculiar marking. The figure is a 
trifle smaller than the generality of specimens. 

The colour of all the wings is white, but the 
upper pair have a double series of blackish dots 
extending nearly across the wings, and an orange 
mark looking something like a roughly made V 
or Y. Even the head, thorax, and body are 
white, or whitish grey. This Moth appears in 
June. 

"We must not pass without notice the Pebble 
Prominent (Notodonta ziczac), because it is the 
species which has earned for the whole genus 
the name of ^Notodonta, or Tooth-back. 

The colours of the perfect insect are in no 
way remarkable, being nothing more than various 
shades of brown. 

The caterpillar, however, is a most extraordinary 



PEBBLE PROMINENT MOTH. 81 

creature. The head is very large in proportion 
to the general size ; and on the sixth, seventh, 
and twelfth segments there is a bold hump, that 
of the sixth segment, which occupies about 
the middle of its body, being sharp, curved, and 
pointed backwards, a peculiarity which has 
given the name of Notodonta to the whole 
genus. When this caterpillar is at rest, it has a 
most eccentric appearance. It grasps with its 
claspers the object on which it sits, and turns 
both its tail and head upwards, so that the 
sharply humped segments and the large head 
present a general effect which is well defined by 
the word zigzag. 

This remarkable larva may be found towards 
the middle and end of autumn upon the poplar 
and sallow, and can best be taken by beating 
the branches. It is impossible to mistake this 
for any other larva, although its colour is but 
different shades of yellowish brown. When full- 
fed it descends to the ground, and spins a cocoon 
upon the surface of the earth, emerging about 
May or June. It is tolerably plentiful, and can 
be easiest obtained by taking the caterpdlare and 
rearing them. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

NOCTUAS. 

We now come to a very large and most im- 
portant section of Moths, so large indeed that it 
alone comprises five times as many species of 
British Moths as there are of British butterflies. 
Some of the Noctuas are conspicuous insects, and 
can be easily identified ; but the greater number 
are so obscure in their markings, and so desti- 
tute of characteristic points of difference, that a 
young entomologist is often tempted to give up 
the whole business in despair. 

In fact, the Noctuas are among Moths what 
the ichneumons are among hymenoptera, and the 
brachelytrae among beetles — enough to break a 
man's heart. 

Sometimes the industrious collector finds 
some larvae totally different in shape, colour, 
and food, and evidently belonging to distinct 
species. He rears them carefully, and then, 
when they appear in the perfect form, he finds 
himself the happy possessor of a number of 
Moths between which the closest inspection can 
detect no characteristic sufficiently distinctive to 



NOCTUAS. 83 

warrant him in deciding upon the particulai 
species. 

Totally vanquished, he puts his specimens in a 
box, and starts off to some standard collection, 
feeling sure that he will return in a short time 
with every specimen properly labelled. He 
goes to the cabinets, and takes out a drawer of 
Noctuas, every one of which looks exactly like 
all the others, and to all appearance will do 
equally well for identification with the specimens 
in his box. A second, third, and fourth drawer 
are examined with precisely the same results, 
and, unless some experienced entomologist be at 
hand ts explain, the young investigator returns 
as wise as he went — perhaps a trifle wiser, as he 
has learned to some extent his own ignorance. 

I narrate my own experience. Numbers of 
Noctuas looked as like each other as the indi- 
vidual sheep of a flock, and it was some time 
before I could understand that the eye of an 
entomologist could be trained as well as that of 
a shepherd, and that both the one and the other 
would plainly see distinctive marks which were 
absolutely invisible to the untrained eye. The 
traveller into distant lands often makes the same 
remark, and, when. he finds himself among black, 
or even dark-skinned men, he finds them all 
alike. He has to dwell among them for some 
time before he discovers the points of difference, 
and then he wonders how he could ever have 
confounded together faces so really dissimilar. 

So it is with the Noctuas. At first, the 
young observer is totally bewildered by the 
similarity between the multitude of specimens 
which he is sure to find, and it is not until his 



84 PEACH-BLOSSOM MOTH. 

eye has been trained by careful practice that he 
is able to detect the characteristics which distin- 
guish one species from another. To this general 
rule there are exceptions, some of the Noctuas 
being splendidly and boldly coloured, but in 
the majority of cases the hues are nothing but 
various tints of brown. 

Our first example of the Noctuas is the pretty 
Peach-blossom Moth (Thyatira batis), this rather 
poetical and very appropriate name being given 




Peach Blossom Moth. 

to it on account of the colours of the wings, 
which bear some resemblance to the delicate rose 
and white of the peach blossom. A figure of this 
Moth is given on Plate VIII. fig. 3, and another 
is seen in the above illustration. 

The ground colour of the upper wings is 
brownish, with a wash of green, and the boldly 
marked spots are rosy pink in the centre, and 
white at the circumference. The lower wings are 
much paler brown than the upper pair, and have 
none of the beautiful rose pink. The antennae 



SCARCE MARVEIL-DU-JOUR. 85 

of the male are slightly pectinated, while those of 
the female are simple. 

The larva of the Peach-blossom Moth feeds on 
the blackberry, and may be recognized by the 
slightly velvety body and the humps which 
appear in several of the segments. That in the 
third segment projects forward and almost covers 
the second segment like a hood. The two next 
segments are simple, but the four next are 
humped. The general colour of this caterpillar 
is warm brown, generally mottled with a lighter 
hue. The Moth appears in the early summer. 

On Plate VIII. fig. 1, is shown a pretty 
Moth, called popularly the Scarce Marveil-du- 
Jour (Diphthera Orion). The figure represents a 
female specimen, the antennae of the male being 
moderately pectinated. 

There is no difficulty in distinguishing this 
beautiful and conspicuous Moth from any other 
of the Noctuas ; but unfortunately it is not so 
common as might be wished, and a really fine 
specimen is somewhat of a treasure. 

The colour of the upper wings is bright green, 
barred transversely with black, and longitudi- 
nally with white, the whole arrangement of colour 
being not only striking, but very uncommon 
among Eritish lepidoptera. The wings are 
edged with .black and white spots. The lower 
wings are blackish. 

The caterpillar of this beautiful Moth feeds on 
birch and oak, and Mr. Crewe thinks that it 
feeds alternately upon these trees. Mr. Newman 
is of opinion that there are really two species of 
Moth confounded together under one common 



86 LARGE WAINSCOT MOTH. 

name, and that to this fact may be attributed the 
differences which have been noticed b-tveen 
various specimens of the moth and the larva. 

When the caterpillar is full-fed, it makes itself 
a cocoon with fragments of bark, and the Moth 
appears about the beginning of summer. 

A really remarkable insect is shown on Plate 
VIII. fig. 2. This is the Large Wainscot 
Moth (Calamia lutosa). There is nothing very 
striking in the appearance of the Moth, the 
colour of which is a brown something like that 
of old wainscoting, relieved by a few black spots. 
This colour, which varies much in point of 
depth, only belongs to the upper wings, the 
lower pair being white, sometimes marked with 
a few brown spots. The body is of the same 
hue as the lower wings. 

The chief interest of this insect lies in its mode 
of life as a caterpillar. 

As soon as it is hatched from the egg, which. 
has been attached by the parent insect to the 
stem of a reed, it gnaws through the bark, 
works its way into the centre of the reed, 
and burrows downwards. When it is about to 
change into the pupal state, it makes its way 
upwards again, and prepares the passage by 
which it will escape when it becomes a Moth. 
For this purpose it begins to gnaw its way out 
of the reed, and eats a circular hole large enough 
to serve as a passage for the Moth. It does not, 
however, cut completely through the stem, but 
aleves a very thin layer of epidermis, so that 
there is no aperture in the reed to betray its 
retreat to an enemy, while the delicate epidermis 



FEATHERED GOTHIC MOTH. 87 

yields easily to the efforts of the Moth when it 
comes to push its way into the open air. 

Several Moths act in this curious manner. 
The Bulrush Moth, for example (Nonagria 
typhce), acts in precisely the same manner 
with the reed-mace or cat's-tail (Typha latifolia), 
and the Breeze-fly Clearwing (/Egeria asili- 
formis) spends its larval life in the interior of 
poplar branches, and prepares its exit by eating 
a hole which almost but not quite penetrates 
through the outer layer of bark. This insect 
is allied to the Hornet Moth, described in 
page 15. 

The generic name of Calamia is derived from 
the Latin word calamus, which signifies a reed. 

We now come to some pretty Moths, which 
go by the popular name of Gothics, because 
the nervures of the wings are very distinctly 
marked, and look something like the tracery 
of Gothic windows. These nervures are not 
marked with sufficient distinctness in the figure 
on Plate VIII. fig. 7, which represents the 
Feathered Gothic (Heliophobus popular is). 

The general colour of the upper wings is 
brown, and there is a very distinct pale spot in 
the diseoidal cell. The nervures are of a similar 
pale hue, and some dark, irregular bands run 
transversely across the wings. The colour of 
the lower wings is simply pale brown. 

The larva passes its time mostly underground, 
whence the generic name of Heliophobus, or Sun- 
fearing, and it does not emerge from the earth 
until it has assumed the perfect condition. The 
Moth appears in the autumn. 



8£ ANTLER MOTH. 

Another of the Gothics — the Bordered Gothic 
(Neuria Saponarice) — is even a prettier insect 
than the preceding species, and has, in addition to 
the white nervures, four delicate pale lines across 
the wings transversely. The generic name is 
taken from the Greek word signifying a nerve, 
and is given to the insect on account of the con- 
spicuous nervures of the wing. 

-M^urly allied to the Gothics is the Antler 
Moth (Charceas graminis), a figure of which is 
given in the illustration helow. 

This Moth is more plentiful than welcome, as 
it causes great damage to agriculture while in its 
larval state. Of this damage we will presently 
treat. 




Like the majority of the Noctuse, the Antler 
Moth is soberly clothed in different shades of 
brown, the arrangement of which can be seen by 
reference to the figure. It appears at the begin- 
ning of autumn, and may be found in any 
number on grass lands. 

The larva of this Moth is one of the worst 
insect enemies with which the agriculturist has 
to contend. It feeds on the roots of grasses, and 
remains during the whole of its earlier stages 



CABBAGE MOTH. 



89 



buried beneath the soil, so that its ravages can 
only be detected too late to save the plant which 
it has killed. 

Even in this country, the Antler caterpillar 
has often destroyed whole acres of pasture-land, 
and is quite as destructive in this way as the 
cockchafer or the daddy-long-legs, while on the 
Continent its approach is looked upon with 
absolute terror, the caterpillar army advancing 
across the fields as if under discipline, and, 
though hidden from view, destroying all the 
grass by devouring the roots. In some places it 
has absolutely destroyed the grass crops, while 
in none does it appear without doing great 
damage. 

The caterpillar is rather smooth, and of a dull 
grey colour, harmonizing almost perfectly with 
the soil in which it lives, and from which it never 
emerges until it has passed through the larval 
and pupal stages of existence. 

Next we come to the genus Mamestra, 
which we have an example in the Cabbage 




Cabbage Moth. 



Moth [Mamestra brassicce), a figure of which is 
here given. 

The popular name of this destructive Moth is 



90 archer's dart moth. 

given to it on account of its habit of feeding on 
the cabbage when in its larval state. This is 
the unpleasant caterpillar which sometimes is 
served up at table by careless cooks, inasmuch 
as it eats its way into the very centre of the 
vegetable, where it sometimes is so snugly 
hidden that it cannot be ejected by the salt and 
water into which the cabbage is plunged before 
being boiled. It must not be confounded with 
the caterpillar of the white cabbage butterfly. 
Indeed, the cook is sometimes scarcely to blame, 
for these caterpillars are so numerous, that the 
total ejection of them all, and the cleansing of 
the leaves from their refuse, is almost an impos- 
sibility. 

When the caterpillar is full-fed, it descends 
to the ground, in which it burrows, and there 
remains until it assumes the perfect state in the 
ensuing summer. 

The colour of the upper wings is very dark 
brown, with a decided tinge of grey, and 
diversified with a number of transverse dark 
marks distributed rather singularly over its 
surface. 

Though, as its name implies, the principal 
food of this insect is the cabbage, it is rather a 
general feeder, and may be found in the larval 
state in almost every garden herb. 

Of the typical family Noctuidse, we shall 
take several examples, the first of which is the 
Archer's Dart (Agrotis valligera), a figure of 
which is given on Plate VIII. fig. 6. 

The colour of this Moth is exceedingly variable, 
but is generally brown of different hues, the dis- 



BROAD-BORDERED MOTH. 

position of which can be learned by reference to 
the figure. The hind-wings are paler in the 
male than in the female, and the antennas are 
more pectinated. 

The larva feeds upon the roots of grasses, and 
the Moth appears in the height of summer. The 
genus of which this species is an example is a 
very large one, containing more than twenty 
species, among which may be mentioned the 
destructive Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum), 
which does so much damage to the turnip 
while it is in its larval state. This caterpillar 
is one of the worst enemies which the turnip 
has, keeping itself hidden beneath the earth, 
and burrowing deeply into the bulb of the plant. 
It also attacks many other vegetables, such, for 
example, as carrots, mangold-wurzel, and even 
the radish ; while, in default of these its 
favourite food, it makes great havoc even among 
garden flowers. 

There is a very admirable article on this 
insect in Mr. Newman's " Illustrated Natural 
History of British Moths," which is too long to 
be inserted entire, and too full of matter for con- 
densation. 

Of the handsome and conspicuous Underwing 
Moths we take two examples, the first of 
which is the Broad-bordered Yellow Under- 
wing (Triphcena fimbria), a figure of which is 
seen on Plate VIII. fig. 8. In these Moths 
there is much more colour than is usual among 
the Noctuse, and, contrary to the general rule, 
the brightest colours are in the hind pair of 
wings. The reason for this arrangement is 



32 BROAD-BORriEKED MOTH. 

obvious. "When the Moth is at rest, the upper 
pair of wings close over the lower and completely 
hide them, so that, in spite of the bright colour- 
ing, the insect looks very sombre, and, when 
resting upon the trunk of a tree or similar 
object, is scarcely to be detected, even by prac- 
tised eyes. 

The colour of the upper wings is brown, rather 
variable in different specimens, some having a 
decidedly green tinge, while the majority are a 
warm, but not very dark brown. A few pale 
bands and marks occur on the wings, as may be 
seen by reference to the figure. At the base of 
the hind-wings is a large patch of bright orange, 
then comes a broad belt of deep black, and on 
the hind margin is a narrow band of the same 
orange as that of the base. The abdomen is 
■also orange. 

The caterpillar of this Moth, though tolerably 
common, is never seen except by those who are 
skilled in this department of natural history. It 
feeds on several trees, of which the birch is the 
favourite, but spends the whole of the day 
beneath the ground, and only comes out after 
dark, when it ascends the tree and feeds on the 
leaves. The colour of this larva is pale brown. 
The Moth appears during the early summer, and 
remains visible for at least three months. 

On Plate VIII. fig. 5, is shown the second 
species of this genus, the Large Yellow Under- 
wing (Triphcejia Pronubd). 

This is also rather a variable insect in point 
of colour, the fore-wings being brown, sometimes 
lighter and sometimes darker, diversified with 
•markings almost as variable in form as they are 



DOUBLE-SPOTTED MOTH. 93 

in colour. The hind-wings are orange yellow, 
and have a moderately broad black band running 
near the hind margin, which is edged with a 
narrow stripe of yellow. 

The larva feeds on many vegetables, and is 
sometimes very destructive in gardens, owing to 
its habit of eating its way into the stem, or 
sometimes into the very heart of the plant, and 
remaining underground during the day, so that 
it cannot readily be detected. When full-fed, 
it again burrows into the ground, makes a rough 
kind of cell of earth, and then undergoes its 
change into the pupa, the Moth appearing in 
early summer. Owing to these habits of con- 
cealment, the larva, though more common than 
gardeners like, is very seldom seen. 

The typical genus of this large family is repre- 
sented here by the Double-spotted Square 
Spot (Noctua triangulum), a figure of which is 
given on Plate IX. fig. 2. 

This insect derives its popular name from the 
markings upon the upper wings, on each of which 
occurs a nearly square dark spot, accompanied by 
another of smaller size and not so well defined. 
There is another dark spot near the tip of each 
wing. The ground colour of these wings is greyish 
brown, and the hue of the hind-wings is also 
brown, but paler, and almost without markings. 

The caterpillar feeds on the night-shade, and 
is coloured with much the same hue as the 
upper wings of the perfect insect. The Moth 
appears at the end of spring or beginning of 
summer, and is tolerably common in most parts 
of England. The genus is a very large one, 
twenty British species being included in it. 



94 PINE BEAUTY MOTH. 

The next family, that of the Orthosidas, con- 
tains a great number of Moths, our first specimen 
of which is the Pine Beauty (Trachea Pini- 
perda), a figure of which is given on Plate IX. 
fig. 3. 

This is a very pretty Moth, the upper wings 
being orange-brown, variegated with bold mark- 
ings of dark brown and greyish white, the shape 
and arrangement of which can be seen by refer- 
ence to the figure. The lower wings are pale 
grey brown, and the thorax is coloured much 
like the upper wings. 

The larva of this Moth feeds on the fir, and 
may be shaken from the tree by tapping 
the branches. When full-fed it spins a slight 
cocoon in a crevice of the bark, and there 
remains until it changes into a moth, which 
appears about the middle of spring. After it 
issues from the cocoon, it is fond of sitting 
motionless upon the trunk of the tree, from 
which it is not easily distinguished, the hues 
and markings of the upper wing harmonizing 
admirably with the warm and varied colours of 
the bark. 

Omitting, for want of space, several genera, we 
come to the Genus Dasycampa, of which only 
one species is known in England. This is the 
Dotted Chestnut (Dasycampa rubiginea), a rather 
pretty Moth, that derives its popular iiainn from 
the colour and markings of the upper wings. A 
figure of this Moth is given on Plate IX. 
fig. 1. 

It is here given, though it is not a common 
Moth, because it is the only British exam fie of 
the genus, and therefore is an important link in 



DOTTED CHESTNUT MOTH. 95 

the chain. Moreover, now that its haunts have 
been discovered, it is not nearly so rare as it was 
a few years ago, as indeed is the case with 
many insects which in former days were among 
the rarest of an entomologist's treasures, but are 
now comparatively plentiful. 

The ground hue of the upper wings is chest- 
nut, slightly tinged with yellow, and diversified 
with some dark brown patches and a number 
of small black dots, scattered profusely over the 
surface. The lower wings are ashen grey, edged 
with a pinkish fringe, and the body and thorax 
take the colour of their two pairs of wings. 

The larva of the Dotted Chestnut feeds on 
various plants and trees, such as the dandelion, 
the apple, and the yew, and when full-fed 
descends to the ground, where it spins a cocoon, 
and therein waits until it emerges in the perfect 
state. It is said to be double-brooded, one brood 
occurring in October and the other in April, but 
I never took either the larva or the perfect insect. 

Of the Sallow Moths we take two examples, 
the first of which is the Sallow Moth (Xanthia 
cerago), a figure of which is seen on Plate IX. fig. 8. 

This Moth is variable in colour, but the upper 
wings are usually of a darkish yellow, on which 
are a number of deep brown markings, without 
any particular shape or apparent arrangement. 
The colour is sometimes much paler, both in the 
ground tint and the markings, and it is thi3 
variety which is shown in the figure. The lower 
wings are greyish white. When the Moth is at 
rest, the wings are closed over the middle of the 
body, and slope downwards on either side, m 
roof fashion. 



96 SALLOW MOTHS. 

In common with all the genus, the caterpillar 
feeds on the sallow, and may be seen upon the 
catkins. It is brown, with a sort of blue wash, 
and has several pale lines running along the 
body. The Moth appears about the middle of 
autumn, and is tolerably plentiful. 

Another species of this genus, the Pink- 
barred Sallow (Xanthia silago), is seen on 
Plate VIII. fig. 4. 

This is a much handsomer insect than the 
preceding species. The popular name, however, 
is scarcely deserved, as the so-called pink bars 
are rust-red rather than pink. The ground 
colour of the upper wings is reddish yellow, and 
the markings, together with the incomplete bars 
that cross the wings, are rust-red with a wash 
of violet. The lower wings are almost uniformly 
pale grey, with a very slight tinge of yellow. 

The larva feeds on the sallow, and the Moth 
appears about the middle of autumn. It is a 
tolerably common species, its numbers depend- 
ing necessarily on the locality, inasmuch as the 
sallow prefers moist and low-lying grounds. 

We now pass to another family, namely, the 
Hadenidse. one or two examples of which will be 
given. The first is the Lychnis (Dianthaecia 
capsincola), so called on account of its food when 
in the larval state. 

The colours of this Moth are very simple, the 
ground tint being rather dark brown, upon 
which are. a number of paler marks, the shape 
and arrangement of which can be seen by refer- 
ence to the accompanying figure. The most 
characteristic of these marks is the pale belt, 



THE LYCHNIS MOTH. 97 

which runs parallel with the hind margin of the 
wings, and a greyish white nervure that runs 
through the middle of the wing. The hind- 
wings are rather dark grey. The two sexes of 
this Moth are easily distinguished by the shape 
of the abdomen, which in the male is compara- 
tively short, and tipped with a tuft of feathery 
plumes, while in the female it is long, conical, 
and sharply pointed. 

The caterpillar may be found upon the White 
Campion, sometimes called the Corn Lychnis 
{Lychnis vespertina), feeding upon the seeds of 
the plant. It is rather a pretty caterpillar, the 
colour being brown, and each segment being 




The Lychnis. 

marked with a greyish chevron and a bar and 
two round dots of the same colour. The Moth 
appears at the beginning of August. 

Another species of this genus is the Mabbled 
Coronet (Dianthcecia conspersa), an insect which 
is more conspicuous in its colouring than the 
preceding species. The ground hue of the fore- 
wings is nearly black, and the markings, which 
are somewhat variable, are of a soft white. 
Perhaps the most constant and conspicuous of 
these marks is a narrow and slightly waved 

H 



98 GREAT ANGLE SHADES MOTH. 

line, which runs nearly parallel to and not far 
from the hind margin, and widening into a 
white patch near the corner of the wing. 

Like the larva of the preceding insect, the 
caterpillar feeds on a lychnis, but prefers another 
species, the common Kagged Eohin (Lychnis 
ftos-cuculi), sometimes called the Meadow Lych- 




Marbled Coronet. 

nis. When full-fed, it burrows slightly beneath 
the ground, spinning for itself a silken cocoon 
mixed with earth, and changing into a chrysalis 
which is remarkable for the two sharp points 
which project at the end of the body. The 
Moth makes its appearance at the beginning of 
summer. 

On Plate IX. fig. 5, may be seen a rather 
handsome Moth, popularly called the Great 
Angle Shades or Flame Brocade (Trigonophora, 
or Phlogophora, empyrea). This insect has 
hitherto been placed in the same genus with 
the common Angle Shades Moth (Phlogophora 
meticulosa), but Mr. Newman gives the following 
reason for separating the two insects : " I can 
find no affinity between this species and Meticu- 
losa, with which it has been associated ; both 
the caterpillar and perfect insect agree better 
with the genus Hadena ; when placed between 



BRIGHT-LINE BROWN-EYE MOTH. 



99 



Meticulosa and Lucipara (the Small Angle 
Shades), it seems to discover a very natural 
alliance." 

The ground colour of the fore-wings is dark 
brown, with a purplish wash on the darker 
portions shown in the illustration. The light- 
coloured markings are nearly white. The hind- 
wiugs are greyish black, but become pale towards 
their bases. 

The caterpillar feeds on the common pile- 
wort, or lesser celandine (Ficaria verna) ; and 
when full-fed, it descends to the ground and 
spins a cocoon of silk mixed with earth. The 
chrysalis has two slight spines on the end of 
the tail. The Moth appears in the middle of 
autumn, and, in those places which it frequents, 
is plentiful. It seems, however, to be a local 
insect. 

Of the large genus Hadena, which includes 
some seventeen species, we shall take two 
examples. The first is the Bright-line Brown- 
eye (Hadena oleracea), a figure of which is given 
in the accompanying illustration. 




Bright-line Brown-eye. 

This Motn derives its popular name from 
the brilliantly white line which runs nearly 
parallel to the hind margin of the upper wings, 
h 2 



100 THH POT-HERB MOTH. 

and in the middle takes a bold zigzag turn. 
The ground colour of these wings is rust-brown, 
and upon them are two rather indistinct greyish 
marks, which are shown in the illustration. 

The caterpillar of this Moth feeds upon a 
variety of plants, both in the wild and cultivated 
state. In the fields it may be found upon the 
elm, the nettle, the dock, and other plants, 
while in the gardens it takes a fancy to lettuces, 
cabbages, and broccoli, especially preferring the 
last-mentioned vegetable, and often does great 
damage among them, concealing itself just below 
the surface of the ground. On account of this 
predilection for garden herbs, it is sometimes 
called the Pot-herb Moth. 

The perfect insect appears at the beginning of 
summer. 

Another species of this genus, the Broom 
Moth (Hadena pisi), is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration 




Broom Moth. 



This Moth derives its name from the fact that 
the caterpillar generally lives on the broom, 
though it also feeds on other papilionaceous 
plants, such as the pea and the vetch, and so 
does much harm in the field and garden. It 
also feeds on the common bracken fern. 



THE SWORD GRASS MOTH. 101 

The ground colour of the upper wings ia 
chestnut brown, but both this hue and those oi 
the lighter markings are rather variable. On 
reference to the illustration, the reader will see 
that almost parallel with the hind margin of tho 
upper wings runs a jagged, light- coloured streak. 
The colour of this streak varies from white to 
yellow. The colour of the hind-wings is paler 
than that of the upper pair, and they become 
nearly grey towards the base. 

The larva is a very pretty one, being striped 
with various" shades of green, black, white, and 
yellow. The Moth appears about the beginning 
of summer. 

Of the next family, the Xyliiiidse, we shall 
t ike ono. or two examples. 




Sword-graas Moth. 

First comes the Sword-grass Moth {Calocam 
exoleta), a figure of which, together with one of 
the beautiful larva, is here given. 



'02 



THE SWORD-GRASS MOTH. 



The colouring of the Moth is not easily 
described, but a good idea of it may be gained 
by reference to the illustration. The upper 
wings are grey with a very slight tinge of blue, 
and upon them are a number of dark streaks, 
indistinctly defined. The hind-wings are brown- 
grey with a whitish grey fringe. 

The larva of this insect is so handsome that it 
has earned for the genus the name of Calo- 
campa — beautiful caterpillar. The ground colour 








Caterpillar of the Sword-grass Moth. 

is green, sometimes rather dull, but o^con very 
brilliant, and upon it are drawn stripes of white 
and scarlet, while the 3-like mark on each 
segment is pure white edged with deep black. 
It feeds upon many plants, and the perfect 
Moth appears towards the end of autumn. 

Our next example of this family is the Mul- 
lein Moth (Cucullia verbasci), so called from 
the principal food of the larva, which is the 
great mullein (Verbascum thrapsus). 

Although the tints of this Moth are very 
sober, it is yet a pretty insect, owing to the 



THE BURNISHED BRASS MOTH. 103 

delicate shades of brown and grey and the mode 
in which they are arranged. The two most con- 
spicuous marks in this insect are the boldly 
scalloped hind margins of the wings, and the 
two whitish crescents which cross the middle of 
the inner margin. The hind-wings are greyish 
brown, becoming paler towards the base 




Mullein Moth. 

The caterpillar feeds upon several plants, but 
is generally found on the great mullein. It is 
rather a brilliant caterpillar, the colour being 
light green, with a stripe of bright yellow on 
either side, and a great number of black and 
very variable marks. The Moth appears about 
the middle of spring, and is very common. 

The family of the Plusidse will be represented 
in this book by several examples, two of which 
belong to the typical genus. 

A figure of the Burnished Brass Moth 
(Plusia chrysitis) is shown on Plate IX. fig. 4. 

This pretty and well-known Moth derives its 
popular name from the colour of the upper 
wings, which are of a shining gold-green, with a 
metallic look about them. There are one or two 



104 THE SILVER Y MOTH. 

brown patches upon the wings, but their pre 
vailing hue is the brilliant metallic colour 
already described. The hind-wings are pala 
brown, without any metallic lustre. 

The caterpillar feeds on the dead nettle and 
other plants, and is rather prettily coloured, the 
body being green, diversified with a number of 
white marks and segments, and a row of black 
dots along the sides. 

This is one of the double-brooded Moths, 
appearing at the end of spring and the beginning 
'.f autumn. 

Our next example is the Silver Y Moth 
{Plusia gamma), so called on account of the 
peculiar white mark on the upper wings, which 
looks much like the English letter Y or the 
Greek letter y. Several of the Moths belonging 
to this genus are remarkable for the letter-like 
marks upon the upper wings. There is, for 
example, the Plusia iota, in which the burnished 
gold mark is something like the written letter i, 
with its dot. There is also the Plusia Nu, in 
which the mark is like the letter n written in silver 
upon the dull grey of the wing, and the Plusia 
terrogationis, in which the silvery mark, with 
its neighbouring dot, resembles in some speci- 
mens a note of interrogation. 

The colour of the upper wings is shining grey, 
covered irregularly with brown. A rather large 
patch occupies the middle of the wing, and upon 
this patch is placed, as if for contrast, the gamma- 
like mark which loo ks as if it were made of 
burnished silver leaf. In fact, with all these 
Moths which e xhibit the letter-like marking, the 
metallic glitter exists as in the Burnished Brass 



THE SILVER Y MOTH. 105 

Moth, but only to a very limited extent, instead 
of occupying the greater part of the wing as in 
that insect. 

The hind-wings are rather pale grey, but a 
broad dark band extends round the hind margin. 
It is a day-flier and very active Moth, dashing 
about with such rapidity, that it is not easily 
captured, even "by a practised wielder of the net. 

The caterpillar feeds on various herbs, and is 
sometimes terribly destructive in gardens — more 




SUver Y Moth. 

so on the Continent than in England. In some 
parts of France it has destroyed whole crops at a 
time, and its ravages were the more destructive 
because the peasantry, with their usual supersti- 
tious ignorance, thought that the creature was 
venomous, and so refused to eat any plant that 
one of the caterpillars had touched. 

This very common Moth appears throughout 
the whole of the summer, and may be seen on 
the wing far into the autumn, flying about the 
flowers of the season as merrilv as in the begin- 
ning of summer. 



106 THE BLACK NECK Ji V-li. 

The insect which is figured on Plate X. fig. A, 
is the only British example of the family Toxo- 
campidae. Its popular name is the Black Xeck 
Moth, and the scientific title is Toxocampa 
past ilium. 

The colour of the upper wings is very pale 
brown, across which are drawn a multitude of 
delicate black lines not reaching completely 
across the wing. The dots which are seen on 
the wings are black. The name of Black Xeck 
is given to this insect in consequence of a very 
dark black-brown band that is drawn between 
the head and the neck ; another similar bund 
marks the junction of the thorax and abdomen. 
The caterpillar feeds on the vetch, and is rather 
remarkable in appearance, its long and slender 
body having gained for the insect the generic 
name of Toxocampa, or Bow-caterpillar. Seven 
narrow stripes of yellow and grey run along the 
upper surface, and the lower surface is very dark 
blackish brown. The Moth appears in the early 
summer. 

We now come to the family Catocalidse, which 
includes the magnificent genus of which we shall 
take two examples. 

On Plate IX. fig. 7, is a figure of the splendid 
Clifden Xonpareil (Catocala fraxini), an insect 
which derives its popular name from the locality 
in which the first recorded specimen was taken. 
Sombre as are its colours, it is a grand-moth, 
measuring sometimes more than four inches 
across the wings. 

It is rather remarkable that in all the Moths 
belonging to this group, the colours are arranged 



THE CLIFDEN NONPAREIL MOTH. 107 

differently to the usual plan, the upper pair 
being sombre, and the lower pair brightly 
coloured ; so that when the insect sits with 
closed wings, the beautiful hues of the under- 
wings are completely concealed. The generic 
name Catocala is composed of two woids, the 
one signifying below or beneath, and the other 
beauty, and is given to the insect in consequence 
of this peculiarity. 

In this species, the upper wings are soft, cool 
grey, beautifully marbled with various shades of 
brown. The hind-wings are delicate lilac, with 
a large patch of deep black, a broad band of 
black running parallel with the hind margin, and 
a rather narrow band of white forming the edge 
of the anterior margin itself. 

This is not at all a common Moth, but is so 
characteristic that it could not well be omitted ; 
and it is not impossible that even yet it may 
become comparatively plentiful, as has been 
the case with many insects which were once 
extremely rare, but are now held as common. 
Mr. Newman gives the young collector a valu- 
able hint respecting this insect. " Some supposed 
English specimens are sold by dealers at a very 
high price, a fact that holds out a perpetual 
premium to fraud. I strongly recommend en- 
tomologists never to buy an English specimen. 
If they desire to place a specimen of this 
beautiful insect in their cabinets, let them give 
a few pence for a French or German specimen, 
and, having labelled it with care, place it in its 
appointed station. It is an evidence of folly to 
give two or three pounds for an insect just 
because it is supposed to be taken on the Eng- 



108 THE DARK CRIMSON UNDERW1NG MOTH. 

lish instead of the French side of the Channel. 
This practice, however, prevails to so great an 
extent as to render it next to impossible to 
unravel the history of every reputed British 
specimen." 

I might add to this advice a strong recom- 
mendation never to buy an insect on any pre- 
text whatever. The principal charm of forming a 
collection of insects lies in the hunting and 
rearing them, and watching their habits, before 
they are consigned to the cabinet ; and those who 
fill their cabinets with purchased specimens not 
only lose all the pleasure attending the right 
pursuit of entomology, and deprive themselves of 
the sound knowledge which they ought to have 
gained, but do their best, however unwittingly, 
to degrade a most important branch of Natural 
History into a mere itch of collecting for collect- 
ing's sake. 

Our next example of this fine genus is the 
Dark Crimson Underwing (Oatocala sponsa}, 
a figure of which is given on Plate IX. fig. 6. 

The colours of this splendid insect are singu- 
larly beautiful, even the comparatively sombre 
hues of the upper wings being so rich in tint, 
and so beautifully disposed, that they would 
have caused the insect to rank among our hand- 
somest moths, even had the hues of the lower 
wings been of the same hues. 

The ground-colour of the upper wings is soft, 
creamy grey, in many specimens having a tinge 
of yellow in it — just that tint which belongs to 
the purest butter. The whole of the surface is 
covered with marbled patterns of dark brown, 



THE RED UNDERWING MOTH. 109 

the general arrangement of which can be seen 
by reference to the figure, without any tedious 
detailed description. The hind-wings are deep 
crimson, with a jagged black band running across 
their centre, and another broad band passing 
round the hind margin. 

The caterpillar feeds on the oak, and the perfect 
insect appears about the middle of summer. 

There is another insect that somewhat re- 
sembles the preceding species. This is the Eed 
Underwing (Catocala nupta). It is generally 
larger than the Dark Crimson Underwing, but 
is scarcely so handsome an insect, the hind- 
wings being red instead of crimson. 

The caterpillar feeds on the willow, and the 
Moth appears in autumn. It is fond of settling 
on the branch of the tree on which it is fed, and 
when it is at rest the scarlet of the lower wings 
is entirely hidden by the mottled grey-brown of 
the upper pair, and the insect harmonizes so com- 
pletely with the colour of the bark, that, large 
as it is, very few persons could detect it. I have 
frequently seen these Moths resting on the trunks 
of the willows that edge the river Cherwell, 
near Oxford, and on more than one occasion have 
proved that even when the Moth was pointed 
out to my companions, they could not see it. 

The family of the Ophiuridse is represented 
by the only British species, the Lunar Double 
Stripe (Ophiodes lunaris), a figure of which is 
given on Plate X. fig. 4. 

The colour of the upper wings is pale brown, 
and they are crossed by two narrow stripes of a 
lighter hue, and by a waved dark line near the 



110 THE LUNAR DOUBLE STRIPE MOTH. 

hind margin. The hind-wings are of the same 
colour, but not quite so dark. The caterpillar 
feeds on the oak, and is so long and snaky that 
it has gained for the genus the name of Ophiode's 
or serpent-like. The Moth appears about MaV 
and may be looked upon as one of the ento- 
mologist's treasures, soberly coloured though it 
may be. 



CHAPTER V. 

DELTOIDES, AVENTIiE, PTRALIDES, CRAMBITB8, 
TORTRICES, TINE2E, AND PTEROPHORI. 

We now leave the Noctuas, and come to a 
series of groups of a totally different character. 
As a general rule, the Noctuas are tolerably 
large, and some of them, such as the Clifden 
Nonpareil, take rank among the giants of British 
Moths. In the group which we are about to 
examine, the reverse is the case, none of them 
being large, and many of them so small that a 
magnifying glass is needed before the markings 
of their wings can be satisfactorily made out. 
Their number is enormous, and many of them 
resemble each other so closely, that to distinguish 
them is a business of the greatest difficulty. I 
have therefore selected some of the largest and 
most conspicuous insects as examples of these 
groups. 

Of the small group of Deltoides, we take, as 
an example, the Snout (Hypena proboscidalis) , 
which is drawn on Plate X. fig. 1. There are 
three species of this genus, but that which is 
given in the plate may be described as the typical 
species, not only of the family Hypenidse, but of 



112 THE BEAUTIFUL HOOK TIP MOTH. 

the whole group. All the Snout Moths are dis- 
tinguished by the extreme length of the palpi, 
which project far in front of the head, and look 
almost like a forked proboscis. 

The colour of the upper wings in this species 
is yellowish brown, edged with a dark brown band 
at the hinder margin, and having two stripes of 
• the same colour drawn across the wings. The 
lower pair are brown, but paler, and almost 
without markings. 

The larva of this species is rather long in 
proportion to its diameter, and is covered with 
moderately long and stiff hairs. It feeds upon 
the common nettle. The perfect insect appears 
in the summer. 

Aventi^e. 

Of the next group, only one species is at 
present known to inhabit England. This is the 
Beautiful Hook-tip (Aventia jlexula), a figure 
of which is given on Plate X. fig. 3. 

This very pretty insect has the basal half of 
the upper wings pink, and the remainder dark 
brown, the light streaks which cross the wings 
being orange. The lower wings are paler than 
the upper, and are barred with a similar orange 
to that of the upper pair. One remarkable 
characteristic of this Moth is the deep scalloping 
of the hinder margin in the upper wings, which 
are cut into two distinct hollows, the first being 
very bold, and the second rather more undu- 
lating. 

The larva is as curious as the perfect insect, 
being much smaller at the ends than in the 
middle, rather flattened, and having a row of 



THE MOTHER O? PEARL MOTH. 113 

projections above the legs. It is beautifully 
coloured with orange brown, white, and green, 
the first-mentioned colour occupying the two 
extremities. It feeds on the lichen, and when 
full-fed spins a slight silken cocoon in which it 
undergoes changes. The perfect insect appears 
in the beginning of summer. 

Ptralides. 

The large group of Pyralides will be repre- 
sented by several examples, the first of which is 
the Mother of Pearl {Botys verticalis), an 
insect which may be considered as an excellent 
type of the entire group. The Moth is repre- 
sented on Plate X. fig. 5. All these Moths are 
remarkable from the fact that when at rest their 
wings form a sort of triangle, of which the apex 
is at their junction with the thorax. The Moths 
of the genus Botys have the abdomen rather 
larger than the wings, and decidedly slender. 

Although the colours of this Moth are very 
simple, being nothing more than lighter or 
darker shades of brown, the insect is a very 
pretty one, on account of the peculiar gloss of its 
wings, which look almost as if they were made 
of mother-of-pearl. The dark brown marks upon 
the wings are more distinct than is the case with 
the other moths of this genus. 

The larvae are slender, but are thicker in the 
middle than at the two extremities. When full- 
fed, they spin for themselves a silken cocoon 
among leaves. 

Ten species of this genus are known to exist 
in England, and all of them have received the 
name of Pearl Moths, from the peculiar gloss of 
I 



Hi THE GARDEN CHINA-MARK MOTH. 

the wings. Another species, the Long- Winged 
Pearl {Botys lancealis), is shown on Plate X. 

fig. 17. 

As may be seen by reference to the illustration, 
the wings of this species, though quite as loDg as 
those of the preceding species, are much narrower, 
so as to make them appear longer than is really 
the case. No other species has this peculiar 
shape of wing, so that the species can be at once 
recognized. This is a very pretty Moth, the 
lighter parts of the wiDgs being pearly yellow, and 
the darker composed of several shades of brown. 

Another insect of this family is the Garden 
China-mark (Ebulea or Phyctcenia sambucalis), 
which is shown on Plate X. fig. 7 

Although the colours of this insect are dark, it 
is a very pretty little moth. The ground-colour 
of the wings is blackish brown, with a few 
blotches of yellow or brown, and the wings edged 
with the same lighter hue. The bold markings 
shown in the figure are greyish white. 

As may be inferred from the specific name 
sambucalis, the caterpillar of this Moth feeds on 
the elder. The perfect insect, which is plentiful 
in all places where elder-trees abound, awears at 
the beginning of summer. 

Crambites. 

We now pass to another group of Moths. 

The reader may perhaps have observed that all 
the specific names of the Pyralides end in alls. 
This is done in order to show at once to which 
group the various species belong. Similarly, all 
the Crambites end in ellus or ella, all the Tortrices 
end in ana, and the Tineas invariably end in ella. 



THE PEARL VENEER MOTH. 115 

Our first examples of the Crambites are taken 
from the typical genus. The first of them is the 
Pearl Veneer (Crambus pinetellus), a figure of 
which is given on Plate X. fig. 9. 

This is a singularly pretty little Moth. Tht 
upper wings are rich chrome yellow, with a 
pearly sort of gloss, from which the insect derives 
its popular name. In the centre of the wing is 
a hold white mark, reaching nearly from the 
hind margin to the base, and interrupted in the 
middle by a dark brown diagonal bar. The 
lower wings are pale glossy grey, slightly darker 
towards the hind margin. In all the Moths of 
this genus, the palpi are long, and project in a 
beak- like form. 

Another species of this pretty genus, the 
Streaked Veneer (Crambus selasellus), is shown 
on Plate X. fig. 8. The Moth derives its popular 
name from the colour of the upper wings, which 
are ochreous grey, and have a central white streak 
which reaches beyond the middle of the wing 
and then becomes forked. The hind-wings are 
simply grey. 

Immediately beneath the Streaked Veneer is 
the Common Veneer [Crambus tristellus) ; see fig. 
11. The projecting palpi are exceedingly con- 
spicuous in this insect, and this species may be 
considered as the typical insect of the entire 
group. The upper wings of this Moth are yellow- 
ish brown, and the lower wings are pale brown, 
without the yellow gloss of the upper pair. 

At fig. 10 of Plate X. is a Moth in which the 
palpi are still more elongated than those of 
the preceding species. This is the Gigantic 
Veneer (Sclwenobius gigantellus), so called on 

T 2 

1 u 



116 THE LARGE MARBLED TORTRIX MOTH. 

account of its size, which is much greater than 
is the case with the generality of these Moths. 

The figure represents the female insect, which 
has the fore-wings pale glossy brown, and the 
hind-wings pure white. The male insect has 
both pairs of wings yellow brown, and the upper 
pair spotted. In some places this Moth is rare, 
but it may generally be taken on low-lying and 
marshy grounds, as the caterpillar feeds upon the 
reed. The Moth aooears at the beginning of 
summer. 

Tortrices. 

The great group of the Tortrices comes next 
in order. These insects are called Tortrices or 
Twisters, on account of the mode in which their 
larvae generally feed, rolling up the leaves of 
various plants, and living within the con- 
torted leaf. 

The first example of the Tortrices that we 
shall take is the Large Marbled Tortrix 
(Sarcothripa revayana), a figure of which is given 
on Plate XL fig. 2. 

A glance at the figure will show how appro- 
priate is the popular name of this insect, for it is 
not only larger than the generality of Tortrices, 
but the wings are beautifully marbled. Like 
many of the Tortrices, it is exceedingly variable, 
at least twelve distinct varieties being known to 
entomologists. The colours of the upper wings 
are always different shades of brown intermingled 
with whitish grey. 

The caterpillar of this Moth feeds on the sallow 
and the perfect insect is on the wing throughout 
the greater part of the summer and autumn. 



THE HAZEL TORTKIX MOTH. 



117 



Next come some examples of the typical 
genus. On Plate XI. fig. 1, is seen the Hazel 
Tortrix [Tortrix sorbiana), an insect which may 
be considered as the typical species of the whole 
group. The upper wings are yellowish brown, 
and the markings are dark hrown, while the 




lower wings are simply brown. In this, as in 
nearly all the Tortrices, there is a considerable 
amount of variation, even among insects that are 
hatched from the same brood. 

The caterpillar of this species feeds chiefly on 



1 1 8 THE PEA GREEN MOTH. 

the hazel, hut is also found upon the oak. As 
an example of the Tortrix larva, a specimen is 
shown in Ih^ preceding illustration, fig. 2 (page 
117). The reader will probably notice at a 
fiance the singular form of the claspers. At fig. 
1 is drawn one of the peculiar labial palpi of the 
perfect insect. 

Another species of this genus is extremely 
common, and is popularly known by the name 
of the Pea Green Moth [Tortrix viridana) on 
account of its colour. The upper wings are of 
a "beautiful pea-green, the lower pair being pale 
brown. 

The larva of this insect feeds on the oak, and 
in some years swarms in countless myriads,. 
so that the verdure of the oak-trees is sensibly 
diminished. At such times, if the branches of 
the oak be smartly struck, or even if a heavy 
blow be given to the trunk of the tree, a vast 
quantity of insect life becomes suddenly dis- 
covered. Should the Moths be out, a whole army 
of them will come fluttering from the foliage, 
looking exactly as if they had been scraps of 
green leaves which had suddenly assumed life. 

At this time, while the larva} are still engaged 
in the business of feeding, thousands of little 
caterpillars come dropping down from the 
branches, each hanging by a very slight but 
very tough silken thread, which they can be 
induced to lengthen almost to any extent, by 
simply continuing the blows which first startled 
them out of their leafy homes. 

One of the oddest things connected with this 
Moth is the fact, that its numbers are greatly 
decreased by means of a little fly belonging to 



THE CLOUDED TORTRIX MOTH. 119 

the genus Empis. This fly possesses a long 
and sharp proboscis, by means of which it can 
suck the life-juices oat of the Moth. Unlike 
most insects of prey, it does not only catch its 
prey while on the wing, but retains it in the 





Green Oak Moth. Oak Moth ami Enipie Fly. 



clasp of its long and slender legs while the 
proboscis is draining the poor little Moth of its 
blood. I have captured great numbers of the 
Empis while thus engaged, and the above illus- 
tration represents the fly as it appears while 
destroying the Moth. 

Still keeping to this genus, we have the 
Clouded Tortrix (Tortrix semialbana), a figure of 
which is given on Plate XL fig. 4. The ground 
colour of the upper wings is pale ochreous 
yellow, and the dark markings, the form of which 
can be seen by reference to the plate, are brown, 
slightly differing in depth in various specimens. 

On Plate XL fig. 7, is a figure of another 
species of the same family, though not of the 
same genus. This is the Lettered Tortrix 
(Leptogramma literana), so called from the manner 
in which its upper wings are decorated with 
marks something like small letters. 

The upper pair of wings present a curious 
roughened appearance which, when examined 
with a magnifying-glass, is seen to cons'*«t a of 



120 THE GBOTIAX TORTRIX MOTH, 

number of bright but pale grass-green scales, 
which are elevated above the general surface of 
the wing. There is a row of tiny white dots 
upon the hinder margin. Some specimens have 
a patch of black elevated scales upon the base of 
the upper wings, and there are few of this very- 
variable insect which are exactly alike in the 
colour and distribution of the markings. The 
lower wings are simply pale brown. 

A mere glance at the little Moth shown in 
Plate XL tig. 9, is sufficient to show one of its 
principal peculiarities, namely, the deep scallop- 
ing in the front edge of the upper wings. In con- 
sequence of this characteristic it is called by the 
appropriate name of Notchwing (Teras caudana). 
It is rather variable in colour, but the ground- 
colour of the upper wings is always brown of 
some shade or other. In the specimen from 
which I write this description the wings are 
pale brown, with an indistinct patch of ochreous 
yellow in the middle, and the scallops edged with 
a band of blackish grey. 

The larva of this insect feeds on the sallow, 
and is more plentiful in the northern than the 
southern counties of England. 

We next take the Grotian Tortrix (Dichelia 
grotiana), the only British member of its genus. 
It is rather a pretty little insect, the upper pair 
of wings being ochreous yellow, partially banded 
with dark brown, and the lower pair, which are 
rather small in proportion to the insect, being 
grey-brown, edged with pale ochre. This is 
rather a southern than a northern insect. 

There are perhaps few genera of insects in 
which the species exhibit more variety than is 



BUTTON TORTRIX MOTH. 12 1 

the case with the genus Peronea. They may, 
however, be mostly referred to their proper genus 
by means of their long palpi, their elongated upper 
wings, and the tufts of raised scales which appear 
in the upper pairs. An example of this genus, 
Peronea variegana, may be seen on Plate XI. fig. 5, 
and another species, Peronea hastiana, at fig. 10. 

Another species, known to entomologists as the 
Button Tortrix {Peronea cristana), is so called 
on account of the button-like prominences on 
the wings. In colour this is perhaps the most 
variable of all the genus, more than thirty dis- 
tinct varieties having been recognized, very 
many of which have been marked in different 
catalogues as species. Variable as this Moth is, 
it may generally be distinguished by the tuft of 
white scales in the middle of the upper wings, 
and the long streak of lighter colour along their 
lower edge. 

The Moth appears in autumn. A figure of 
this insect is given on Plate XL fig. 3. 

Next on our list comes the Bergmannian 
Tortrix (Dictyopteryx, or Cro?sia,Bergmanniana) 




Bergmannian Tortrit 

This is a very pretty little Moth, the colour of 
the upper wings being ochreous yellow, with a 
decided gloss, and upon the hinder margin there 
is a brown belt, with a number of tiny white 
spots running through its centre. The hind- 
wings are pale brown. This is rather a destruc- 



122 THE HOLM] AX TORTRIX MOTH. 

tive insect in gardens, the caterpillars feeding upon 
the rose, and affixing themselves to the leaves by 
means of silken threads. The Moth is a very 
common one, as is its congener, the Holmian 
Tortrix (Dictyopteryx Eoimiana), which much 
resembles the preceding species, but has on the 
edge of the ripper wings a white triangular natch 
surrounded with a blackish grey belt. 

We now come \ to another family of Tortrices, 
the Penthinidse, and take as oui example a 
member of the typical genus. This is the pretty 
though soberly-coloured Moth shown on Plate XI. 
fig. 8 (Penthina cynosbana). All the Moths of 
this genus are exceedingly variable. The indi- 
vidual specimen now before us has the white 
patch at the end of the wings much larger than 
is the case -with the specimen from which the 
figure was drawn, and the C-shaped mark which 
is so conspicuous in the figure is very small and 
ill-defined in my specimen. The dark portion of 
the wing is brown dappled with black, and the 
under wings are simply pale brown. 

For examples of the family Spilonotidse, we 
take two examples, both belonging to the typical 




Cream Short-cloak. 



lamily, the first of which is the Cream Short- 
cloak (Spilonota ocellana), a pretty though not 
brilliantly coloured Moth. It is extremely vari- 



THE NETTLE TORTRIX MOTH. 123 

able, the markings, though consisting simply of 1 
different shades of brown, beiu,^ disponed in a 
"wonderful variety of forms. In two specimens 
now before me, they are so d liferent that it is 
scarcely possible to believe that both insects 
belong to the same species. 

Another species, the Brown Cloak (Spilo- 
nota roborana), is shown on Plate XI. hg. 13. 

The colours of this species are almost exactly 
the same as those of the preceding insect, and 
are also variable, except that a large patch of 
dark brown is to be found at the bases of the 
upper wings. The larva of this species is very- 
troublesome in gardens, and does great damage 
to the roses, eating the buds and young leaves. 
The Moth appears in summer. 

On the same Plate, fig. 12, is shown an ex- 
ample of another family, the Seriuorida?. This 
is the Nettle Tortrix (Sericoris urticana), 
also a very variable insect, the colours being 
brown and whitish grey and distributed in a 
variety of forms. In the specimen now before 
me, the cross bands of the wings are compara- 
tively indistinct. 

On Plate XI. fig. 11, is drawn an example oi 
the Grapholithidse (Ephippijihora fameana). In 
this pretty Moth the white marks seen on the 
wings are of a pearly lustre, whde the rest of the 
wing is shining brown, the lower wings being 
nearly as dark as the upper pair. 

Another example of the same family is the 
W^berian Tortrix (Semasia Waeberana). 

This very pretty little Moth requires a mag- 



124 THE W^BKRIAN T0RTRIX MOTH. 

nifying-glass to bring out all its beauties. 
Viewed with the unassisted eye, it is little more 
than a ruddy brown Moth ; but when the lens is 
brought to bear upon it, the wings are seen to be 
covered with a vast number of glittering markings, 
looking as if they had been delicately pencilled 
in gold and then burnished. 

Unfortunately, this lovely little Moth is as de- 
structive as it is beautiful, and in some cases 
becomes one of the veriest pests to the gardener 
and fruit-grower. The larva, which is small and 
greenish with a yellow head, affects the plum, the 




Wseberian Tortriz. 

peach, the apricot, and indeed almost every stone- 
fruit. Unlike most larvae, it does not eat the 
leaves or fruit, but feeds on the inner bark, and 
burrows beneath the outer bark so as to reach its 
food. It may, however, be detected by the little 
round holes which it leaves in the bark, and the 
yellowish powder which falls from them, and may 
be destroyed by brushing a little oil into the holes. 
When it is full-fed, it passes into the chrysalis 
state within a cocoon, and the Moth appears first 
in May, a second brood appearing about the 
middle of autumn. 

Another very destructive insect comes next on 
our list. This is the Codlin Moth (Carpocapza 
pomonana), a figure of which is here given. 



THE CODLIN MOTH. 125 

This is also a singularly pretty Moth when 
examined closely. The upper wings are greyish 
hrown banded with darker brown, and having 
towards each end a patch of warm chestnut, on 
which is drawn a rather elongated mark like 
the letter traced in burnished gold. 

Beautiful as it is, it ought to be destroyed 
whenever seen ; but- as it has a habit of conceal- 
ing itself in the crevices of the bark of the tree 
on which it feeds, to discover it is not an easy 




Codlin Moth. 

matter. This Moth is the cause of great destruc- 
tion among apples, especially the codlin kind. 
All apple-growers, and many apple-eaters, must be 
aware of the unpleasant state of many apples 
when they become " worm-eaten." In some cases 
the whole interior of the apple is filled with 
a brown dust and pierced full of holes ; and in 
others, the cause of all this damage is found in 
the shape of a white grub-looking caterpillar 
which is the larva of the Codlin Moth. 



126 XANTHOSETIA HAMANA. 

When the caterpillar is full-fed, the apple falls 
from the tree, and the larva eats its way through 
the rind and issues for the first time into the 
open air. It instinctively makes for the trunk of 
a tree — generally that on which the apple grew 
— ascends it, and conceals itself within a crevice of 
the bark. There it spins a silken cocoon of a 
whitish colour, and in the following summer issues 
in the shape of the beautiful Moth which has just 
been described. The preceding illustration repre- 
sents the moth, the larva, and the apple. 

On Plate XI. fig. 16, is drawn another Moth 
of this family, known by the scientific name of 
Stigmonota regiana. 

This very conspicuous little Moth has the 
upper wings black, with the exception of a large 
yellow patch in the middle of the lower edge, 
and several yellowish-white dots placed obliquely 
in the centre. The lower pair of wings are 
blackish brown, and the feathery fringe is yellow. 

■ in'. 
As an example of another family, the Cochy- 
lidse, we will take the Moth which is shown on 
Plate XL fig. 14, and is known by the name 
of Eupoeceli hybridellana. 

The last of the Tortrices which will be men- 
tioned in this work is that which is shown in 
Plate XL fig. 15. Its name is Xanthosetia 
hamana. 

This pretty Moth is rather variable, though 
the colours are tolerably constant. In the speci- 
men before me the upper wings are cowslip yel- 
low, marked with ruddy brown bands not reach- 
ing quite across the wing, and some spots of the 



THE TRIPLE SPOT BLACK MOTH. 127 

same hue, very much smaller than those of the 
figure. The lower wings are pale brown, and the 
fringe is pearly white. 

Tinea 

Though individually of small dimensions, the 
group of the Tinese is collectively a very large 
one, and embraces within its limits some of the 
most destructive British insects, among which 
may be mentioned the Honey-comb Moth, which 
destroys hives in spite of the bees' venomous 
stings ; the Clothes Moth, which makes havoc 
among wool, fur, and feathers ; and the Grain 
Moth (the " rust " of the Scriptural Moth and 
Rust). 




Iucurvaria capitella. 

>ur first example of the Tineas belongs to the 
typical family, the Tineidae. This is the Triple 
Spot Black Moth (Incurvaria capitetla), a figure 
of which is here given. 

This is a most lovely little Moth, the upper 
wings being deep purple, with a metallic gloss. 
The three spots which are seen on each wing are 
of a beautiful golden yellow, making the insect a 
very conspicuous one. 

The larva of this Moth is one of the burrowers, 
making its way into the tender shoots of the 
currant, and completely tunnelling out all their 
interior. It is a tolerably common Moth, and may 
be captured in the day-time, fluttering about the 



128 



THE LONG-HORN MOTH. 



currant-bushes or settling upon them. The 
perfect insect appears about June. 



Next we come to some singularly beautiful 
insects, remarkable for the enormous length of 
their antennae. 

The first of them is the Long-horn (Adda Be 
Gterella), one figure of which is given in the illus- 
tration with its wings extended, and another with 
them closed. The length of the antenna? may be 




ijong-hom Moth. 

understood from the fact that a Moth scarcely 
a quarter of an inch long has the antennas an 
inch and a quarter long, exactly five times the 
length of the body. These antennas are as fine as 
spider-webs, and as the insect sits on the oak-leaf 
the antennas wave about with every breath of air, 
looking like threads of iridescent spun glass. This 
appearance is due to the colour and disposition of 
the minute scales which cover the antennas, and 



THE GREEN ADELA MOTH. 129 

which are far too small even to be seen at all 
except with the aid of a powerful microscope. 

Scales of a similar character cover the wings,, 
which to the unassisted eye are simply brown, 
with a few gold-coloured streaks, but which, when 
seen by the aid of a microscope and well-arranged 
light, form as gorgeous a spectacle as the mind of 
man can well conceive. 

The larva of this Moth feeds in rather a curious 
manner, making a sort of case or cocoon of the 
leaves on which it feeds, and never quitting its 
home until it has passed through its preliminary 
stages. The larva of the Adela is shown in its 
case on cut I, fig. 4, p. 117. 

Near the figure of the Moth is one of its 
chrysalis. The attention of the reader is par- 
ticularly called to the spiral thickening of the 
tail. This is caused by the antennae, which are 
led down from the head of the chrysalis to the 
tail, and are then wound round and round in a 
regular spiral. 

Another soecies is the Greek Adela (Adela 
viridella). 




Green Adela Moth. 

As its name imports, its colour is green, the 
upper wings being of a bright bronze green, 

K 



139 THE LITTLE ERMINE MOTH. 

shining in certain lights like polished metal. The 
under wings are maroon Drown, with metallic 
bronze fringe. 

The Moth is also an oak lover, and in the 
copses of West Kent, wherein oak underwood is 
plentiful, any number of these lovely Moths may 
be taken at the proper season of the year. 

The family of the Yponomeutidse is represented 
in this work by the typical insect, the Little 
Ermine Moth (Yponomeuta padella) . 

This very pretty and very destructive insect 
derives its popular name from the colour of the 
upper wings, which are glossy satin white, 
sprinkled with black dots. The lower wings are 
pale greyish brown. 

In the larval form this insect is terribly 
destructive, sometimes demolishing the foliage 01 
whole hedges and forest trees, and enveloping 
them in a mass of silken threads and webs or 
such size and toughness that even the very' 
sparrows can scarcely make their way through 
them when they alight on the tree for the purpose 
of eating the caterpillars. 

Fortunately for the gardener and fruit-grower, 
the white webs of these caterpillars are very con- 
spicuous, and the larvaa may be destroyed by 
thousands. Oue of these webs is shown in cut 
L, fig. 2, page 23, as it appears when all the 
inhabitants are within. Some of these webs 
are six or seven inches in diameter, and contain a 
vast number of caterpillars. The head of the 
perfect insect is shown in cut I, fig. 3, page 117 

The accompanying figure represents an example 



THE GREY-STREAK MOTH. 131 

of the . family Plutellidce, namely, the Grey 
Streak (Plutella porreclella). 

The upper wings of this Moth are greyish 
white, sometimes with a creamy tinge, and they 
are patched and streaked with dark brown. The 
lower wings are pale brown. This insect is 
sometimes called the Socket Moth, because the 
larva chiefly feeds upon the rocket plant, drawing 



Plutella porrectella. 

the leaves together by silken threads, and conceal- 
ing itself in the middle of them. 

This is one of the double- brooded Moths, one 
set appearing in the spring and the other in the 
autumn. 

Passing by a considerable number of families, 
we come to a very plentiful and very mischievous 
little insect, the Confluent-barred Moth (Gra- 
cillaria syringella), which is here shown together 
with its habitation. 

The colour of this Moth is rather pretty, the 
upper wings being ochreous yellow, mottled with 
dark brown, and having at the tips an eye-like 
mark with a black centre. The lower wings are 
plain light brown. 

"When first hatched, thv oaterpiUar of this Moth 
burrows into the leaves of the plant on which it 
feeds, which is generally die lilac, and there re- 
mains until it is able to prepare an habitation for 
itself. It then makes its way out of the burrow, 



132 THE C0NFLUEN1-3ARB.ED MOTH. 

and proceeds to another leaf, which it rolls up, as 
seen in the illustration, tying the leaf down with 
silken threads. 

The mode in which it accomplishes a task 
which is apparently far beyond the physical 
powers of the creature is very interesting. The 
little caterpillar begins by spinning threads and 
fixing one end to the top of the leaf, and the 
other to the centre of it. These threads are 
arranged in a row, and when they are all fixed 




The Confluent-barred Moth. 

the caterpillar goes over them again, pulling them 
alternately with its feet so as to shorten them, and 
fixing the shortened portion down by new thread- 
matter from its spinneret. Slowly, almost im- 
perceptibly, but surely, the leaf is brought to the 
required shape by the accumulated action of these 
threads ; and when the cylinder is completed 
the caterpillar creeps into it, and there remains 
secure. 

A much magnified example of another species 
of the same genus is given in Plate XII. fig. 3. 
Its name is the Golden Spot (Gracillaria 
auroguttella). 



THE LITTLE WAGGONER MOTH. 133 

The very conspicuous spots on the upper wings 
are golden yellow, and the ground hue of the 
wings is dark shining grey. The hind- wings 
are brownish grey, with a very long pale fringe. 
There is another species which closely resembles 
this insect. It is called the Four Spot (Gracillaria 
quadrisignella) , and has four spots on a dark grey 
ground. But in the latter species the spots are 
pale sulphur, and they are arranged almost per- 
pendicularly on the margin. 

The larva of this Moth is whitish green, and 
feeds on one or two species of St. John's-wort 
(Hypericum). 

An example of another family, the Coleo- 
phoridse, is found in the small but pretty insect 
which is given in Plate XII. fig. 1, much magni- 
fied. This is the Little Waggoner (Goleophora 
cur) ■ucipennella) . 

The upper wings of this species are white, and 
the veins are yellow, becoming brownish towards 
the tips of the wings. The lower wings are grey 
brown. 

The larva of this insect feeds upon the 
leaves of various trees, such as oak, hornbeam, 
sallow, &c, and makes for itself a curious little 
blackish case from the leaves. The form of the 
case is something like that of a pistol stuck 
muzzle downwards in the leaf, and in this case 
the caterpillar resides throughout its life. 

There are more than fifty acknowledged species 
of this genus. 

The tiny JSTepticulidse are represented in this 
work by the Golden Pigmy (Nepticula aurella) 



134 



THE GOLDEN FIGMT MOTH. 



a Moth which is shown much magnified in Plate 
XIL fig. 2. 

This family contains the smallest and yet the 
most brilliant examples of British lepidoptera, 
most of them being so tiny that the aid of a 
magnifying- glass is required to set them when 
captured, and +o make out the real form and hues 




j. 



In consequence of 
they are popularly 



of their beautiful colouring 
their minute dimensions, 
known as Pigmy Moths. 

The larvae of all these insects are more like 
maggots than caterpillars, and burrow into the 
interior of leaves, making their way between the 
two layers of the leaf, eating the soft intermediate 



PLUME MOTHS. 135 

substance, or "parenchyma," and producing the 
devious tracks which are so common on many 
leaves, especially those of the bramble. 

The upper wings of the Golden Pigmy are of a 
rich golden brown, becoming deep purple beyond 
the middle, across which runs a single band as 
of burnished gold. Other species possess a 
golden band very similar in appearance, but the 
Golden Pigmy can always be distinguished by 
the purple hue which has been described. 

The larva of this pretty little Moth is one of 
the bramble miners ; and can easily be procured 
and reared into the perfect state. 

The illustration in the preceding page represents 
the earlier stages of this Moth. Fig. 1 is a much 
magnified representation of the maggot-like larva, 
which has no projecting feet, because it needs 
none to enable it to force its way through the 
leaf. Pig. 2 shows the bramble leaves, with the 
mined tracks in them, and fig. 3 is a magnified 
representation of the tiny cocoon, found at the 
end of the burrow. 

PTEROPHORI. 

We have now but two Moths to describe, both 
of them belonging to the strange family of 
Pterophorida?, or Plume Moths. The wings of 
these insects are most curiously formed, and bear 
the same relation to those of ordinary Moths, as do 
the feather fans to those made of paper or other 
fabric. In the Plume Moths, the wings are not 
formed of a membrane stretched upon rays, but 
each ray, or nervure, forms the stem of a separate 
plume. In the lower wings, these nervures are 



136 THE TWENTY PLUME MOTH. 

separated nearly to the base, but in the upper 
wings are only partially separate. 

A very common species of this group is shown 
on Plate XII. figs, i and 5, both figures being 
of the natural size. The former of these is the 
White Plume (Pterophorus pentadactylus), some- 
times called the Phantom, or the Skeleton. 
This very pretty Moth is snowy white, and is 
very plentiful, coming out in the evenings and 
fluttering softly along as if it were a snow-flake 
borne by the wind. 

The second species is the Stone Plume 
(Pteropkorus lithodactylus), in which the wings 
are stone-grey instead of white. 

The accompanying illustration is a figure of 
the beautiful Twenty Plume Moth {Alucita 
polydactyla), enlarged to twice its natural size. 




Plume Moth. 

This is the only British example of its genus, 
and cannot be mistaken for any other Moth, 
the numerous Plumes, amounting altogether to 
twenty-four, being found in no other insect. 
This Moth has a strange predilection for the 
habitations of man, and may be seen fluttering 
up and down the inside of windows, especially 
those of out-houses. 



CHAPTER VI. 

We conclude with a few hints upon capturing 
and preserving Moths. 

The ordinary mode of taking Moths is by 
means of the net, two forms of which are shown 
in the illustration in the next page. 

Fig. 4 is the clap-net. This is made of two 
rods, which support between them an oblong 
piece of green gauze, and by some entomologists 
is very highly valued. I, however, never could 
use it with any confidence, both hands being 
required, and the shape of the net rendering the 
insect-hunter to be liable to tumble over the 
various obstacles which are sure to lie in his 
way. 

The net which I prefer is the common ring- 
net, shown at fig. 2. This is simply an iron 
hoop, sustaining a green gauze bag. This net is 
held in one hand, and by a slight stroke of the 
arm the Moth may be captured, while a turn of 
the wrist doubles the net over the hoop, and 
prevents the Moth from escaping. The " scissors " 
net is also used by entomologists. This is so 
formed that Moths sitting on leaves can be cap- 
tured between the flat blades of the scissors, leaf 
and Moth being enclosed together. 



138 



NETS. 



Moths being for the most part nocturnal, night 
is the best time for catching them, and the most 
effective mode of doing so is by " sugaring." Eoil 
together the very coarsest moist sugar and beer, 
mix some new rum in it, and keep it tightly 




i r t 



stopped. When about to go off after Moths, im- 
merse a dozen or so pieces of rag in the sugar, and 
put them, still moist, into a little pot. Take a 
bull's-eye lantern, the net, and plenty of pins and 
boxes, and start off after dark for some place where 



THE SETTING-BOARD 139 

there are trees. Pin the rags on the trunks of the 
trees, and after half an hour or so light the lantern, 
tie it on the waist, so as to leave both hands at 
liberty, and go round the trees. Upon and about 
all the sugar-rags will be a very crowd of Moths, 
some of them with their eyes gleaming like 
living opals, some flying, and some sitting on the 
tree quite stupefied with the rum. 

Figs. 1 and 3 show the " setting-board" as se«n 
from above and in section. 

Any one can make a setting-board. It is only 
needful to procure some flat cork from the cork- 
cutter's, cut it into strips, and then glue them on 
a board, leaving a sufficient space between them 
for the body of the Moth. Many entomologists 
bevel off the cork, as shown in fig. 3, but 
personally I prefer the cork to be flat. 

In order to " set " the Moths properly, cut a 
number of triangular slips of card about an inch 
in length, and a quarter of an inch across at 
the base. Also, push the eye portion of a fine 
needle into a slight wooden handle — a common 
lucifer match will do very well. 

Have the cards rea jy and a store of pins, some 
of the ordinary kind, and some which are very 
fine and made expressly for the purpose. These 
pins can be obtained at any of the dealers in 
objects of natural history, and it is as well to 
have also a pair of small long-nosed pliers. 

Pass the fine pin through the centre of the 
Moth's thorax, and then fix it in the setting- 
board, the body of the Moth lying in the 
groove between the corks. With the inverted 
needle draw the wings into their proper attitude, 
as seen in the illustration, and then fix them by 



140 PRESERVATION OF MOTHS. 

laying on them one of the slips of card, through 
the base of which a pin is then run into the 
cork. The antennae must also be arranged and 
fixed with pins, and the insect left until it is 
quite dry. 

As to preservation against the dreadful mite, 
whose ravages will in a season destroy the 
labour of years, I have found that the compara- 
tively slow process of immersing the insect in 
poison is the most effectual preservation. Make 
a solution of corrosive sublimate in spirits of 
wine, and make it so strong that when a 
black feather is dipped in it and then dried 
a white frosty dust appears on the surface. Then 
continue to weaken it by the addition of spirit 
until the white efflorescence has disappeared, and 
the solution will be exactly the right strength. 

Dip the Moth boldly in this solution, and take off 
the superfluous moisture at the ends of the wings 
by blotting-paper; then shake it gently in the 
sun or before the fire, or place it under the 
sash of a window raised about one inch, so that 
a strong draught shall pass through it. If these 
directions be carefully attended to, not the least 
particle of down will be disturbed, and feathery 
Moths will appear just as fresh as when they 
were first taken. 

Large-bodied Moths, such for example as the 
Death's Head, the Puss, the Lappet, and others, 
must be stuffed in order to prevent " grease," — a 
horrid oleaginous substance which exudes from the 
hodies, and spreads even to the tips of the wings, 
making the insects look as if they had been 
dipped in oil. The best way is to remove the 
abdomen at its junction with the thorax, and 



CHRYSALIS HUNTING. 141 

carefully to remove the contents. Fill up the 
space lightly with cotton-wool, pour into the wool 
two or three drops of the poison, and then fix the 
abdomen in its place with diamond cement. By 
following this plan the entomologist will not 
only avoid grease, hut will preserve the bodies of 
his Moths from shrivelling and wrinkling, than 
which nothing looks worse. 

Should the reader wish to take up the rearing 
of Moths, he can do so in two modes ; namely, 
by preserving the chrysalis and rearing the larvae, 
in many cases doing so from the egg, as with 
silkworms. 

The best mode of obtaining the chrysalis is 
to hunt for it in the haunts of the insect, and 
in all cases the hark of trees and the earth 
near their roots are tolerably sure localities. 
Solitary trees, especially the oak, are the best, 
and in digging up the earth near the foot vast 
numbers of pupse may be found, the number 
increasing in precise proportion to the amount 
of practice. There are few things more deceptive 
than such localities, for a novice may hunt for 
an hour and never find a chrysalis, while a prac- 
tised digger will take the very same soil, and 
carry off a pocketful of treasure. 

For the following excellent account of breeding 
the insect from the egg, I am indebted to my 
friend Albert H. Jones, Esq., of Eltham. 

GLAS8 CYLINDERS FOR REARING LEPIDOPTERA. 

For two or three years past I have been very 
successful in rearing a great many Lepidoptera 
from the egg (more especially the Geometras), by 



142 INSECT BREEDING. 

means of glass cylinders. The system not onlj 
shows a good result as regards the number of 
specimens bred, but also affords abundant oppor- 
tunity for observing the various habits of the 
larvae. The apparatus is made as follows : — 

First procure a saucer (the largest that can be 
obtained), through the centre of which a hole 
must be made. This may easily be done by 
placing the saucer, inverted, on some soft sub 




Fig. 1. 

A (shaded lines). — The saucer. 

B. — Kim of saucer, over which calico is stretched and pasted at F. 

C— Calico stretched from edge of saucer (B) to eyelet (D). 

D. — Eyelet fastening down the calico. 

E. — Hole in saucer. 

stance (a pillow for instance), and striking ii 
sharply with the point of some instrument with 
sufficient force to make a small hole, which must 
then bo enlarged so as to admit of a brass eyelet. 1 
Then stretch a piece of calico over the saucer and 
paste it to the under-side, care being taken to 
leave it sufficiently slack, so that, when dry, the 
brass eyelet can be inserted, and fastened with 
the ring at the reverse side of the saucer. (See 
section of the saucer, fig. 1.) 

The portion of the eyelet which passes through 
the hole must be cut in such a way that the 
edges will bend over and hold the ring. The 

1 Brass eyelets with rings are obtained at Barton and 
Sons, 48, Goodge Street, Tottenham Court Boad. 



INSECT BREEDING. 



143 



next tiling to obtain is a glass cylinder, 1 open at 
both ends, over one end of which stretch fine 
muslin and paste it to the edge of the glass. The 
diameter of the cylinder should be about one 
inch less than that of the saucer. The gallipot 
to hold the water, in which the stems of the food- 




Fig. 2. 

plant are to be placed, should fit on the outside 
of the rim of the saucer. The apparatus is now 
complete and appears as in fig. 2. When the 
food requires changing, invert the cylinder with 
saucer (fig. 3) ; cut off the ends of the plant 
which have been in the water, and replace the 
saucer on the gallipot, leaving the food and larvae 
in the cylinder ; then put in the fresh food through 
the hole in the saucer, and replace the cylinder 
without removing the larvse, which will as a 

1 Glass cylinders are merely glass shades with the 
tops cut off, and doubtless could be obtained at most 
shops where such are sold. 



144 



INSECT BREEDING. 



matter of course crawl from the old to the fresh 
food. The withered plant can be removed after 
a time without disturbing the larvae. 

When the eggs are hatching, place instead of 
the cylinder, a tumbler over the food-plant, and 
keep it over the young larvae until they are large 
enough to be removed. This prevents their 
wandering too far away from their food, which is 
an important point when the larvae are very smalL 




Fig. 3. 

Many larvae, ana especially the Geometrae, require 
but little depth of earth in which to turn ; there- 
fore, when they are about to assume their 
proper state, place a little mould on the calico, 
which will be found to be all that is neces- 
sary. However, for those that require a greater 
depth of earth it is advisable that the larvae, 
when nearly full fed, be removed into other 
quarters. 

I then found the following plan a good one. 



INSECT BREEDING. 145 

Procure a fern-pot, 1 to the rirn of which have 
fitted a cylinder of perforated zinc, so that it ean 
be removed on and off; across the top of the 
cylinder stretch muslin, and fasten it round the 
top by means of string. In the centre of the 
fern-pot place a small gallipot having a lid of per- 
forated zinc, in 'which make several large holes 
for the admission of the food-plant. The space 
round the gallipot fill up with mould 

1 Fern -pots are to rjp got at potteries. Pascal of Ciisel- 
hurst snpplics ti.i':a .>f all sizes. 



INDICES. 



INDEX. 



Abraxas, 58. 
Acherontia, 6. 
Aflela, 128. 
.Kgeria, 87. 
Agrotis, 90. 
Alucita, 130. 
Aiuphydasis, 53. 
Angerona, 47. 
Anthrocera, 21. 
Antler, 88. 
Archer's Dart, 90. 
Arctia, 29. 

Argent and Sable, 66. 
Aspilates, 58. 
Aventhe, 112. 

B. 

Beautiful Hook-Tip, 112. 
Belted Beauty, 53. 
Bergmannian Tortrix, 121. 
■ listen, 54. 
Black-Neck, 106. 
Bombyx, 36. 
Bordered Beauty, 49 
Bordered Gothic, 88. 
Botys, 113. 
Breeding Moths, 141. 
Breeze-Fly Clearwing, 87. 
Bright-Line Brown-Eye, 99. 
Brimstone Moth, 48. 
Brindled Beauty, 54. 
Broad-bordered Bee ITawk- 

Moth, 15. 
Broad-bordered Yellow Undcr- 

wing, 91. 
Broom Moth, 100. 
Brown Cloak, 123. 
Brown-tailed Moth, 33 
Buff Ermine, 33. 
Buff-Tip, 77. 
Bulrush Moth. 87. 



Burnet Moth, 41. 
Burnished Brass, 10.V 
Button Tortrix, 121. 



Cabbage Moth, 89 

Calamia, 86. 

Calocampa, 101. 

Carpocapsa, 124. 

Catocala, 106. 

Cerura, 71. 

Chalk Carpet, 67. 

Charaeas, 88. 

Cheimatobia, 61. 

Chelonia, 29. 

Chimney Sweep, 22. 

Chocolate Tip, 80. 

Chcerocampa, 10. 

Cinnabar Moth, 27. 

Clearwing Moths, 15. 

Clifden Nonpareil, 106. 

Clisiocampa, 39. 

Clostera, SO. 

Clouded Border, ir. 

Clouded Buff, 29. 

Clouded Magpie, 60. 

Clouded Tortrix, 119. 

CochylidaB, 126. 

Cockney, 55. 

Codlin Moth, 124. 

Coleophora, 133. 

Common Emerald, 56. 

Common Veneer, 115. 

Confluent-barred Moth, 131. 

Convolvulus Hawk-Moth, 10. 

Cossus, 18. 

Crambites, 114. 

Crambus, 115. 

Cream Short Cloak, 122. 

Cream-spot Tiger Moth. 32. 

Crimson Speckled Fojtman 2? 

Crcesia, 121. 



150 



INDEX. 



Cucullia, 101. 
Currant'Olearwing, 16. 
Currant Moth, 58. 
Cuspidates, 70. 

D. 

Dark-Bordered Beauty, 49. 
Dark Crimson Underwing, 103. 
Dasycampa, k 94. 
Dasychira, 36. 
Death's-Head Moth, 5. 
Deilephila, 10. 
Deiopeia, 27. 
Deltoides, 111. 
Dianthsecia, 96. 
Dichelia, 120. 
Dicranura, 71. 
Dictyopteryx, 121. 
Diphthera, 85. 
Dotted Chestnut, 94. 
Double-spotted Square Spot, 93. 
Drinker, 39. 

E. 

Early Tooth-Stripe, 65. 
Ebulea, 114. 

Elephant Hawk-Moth, 11. 
Emperor Moth, 43. 
Empis Fly, 119. 
Endromis, 42. 
Ennomidse, 47. 
Ephippiphora, 123. 
Epione, 49. 
Ermin* Moth, 32. 
Euchelia, 27. 
Eulepia, 27. 
Eupithecia, 6S. 
Eup<e«ilia, 126. 
Eurymene, 48. 
Euthemonia, 29. 
Eyed Hawk-Moth, 2. 



FeatherediJothio, 87 
Feathered Thorn, 50. 
Fidonidse, 57. 
Flame Brocade, 98. 
Footman Moths, 23. 
Four Spot, 133. 
Fox Moth, 38. 

G. 

Garden Carpet, - 6S. 
Garden China Mark, 114. 



Geometer Moths, 45. 
Geometra, 47. 
Ghost Moth, 20. 
Gigantic Veneer, 115. 
Goat Moth, 18. 
Golden Pigmy, 133. 
Golden Spot, 132. 
Gold-tailed Moth, 34. 
Gracillaria, 131. 
Grapholithidae, 123. 
Grass Emerald, 56. 
Grass Wave, 58. 
Great Angle Shades, 98. 
Green Adela, 129. 
Green Carpet, 63. 
Green Forester, 21. 
Green Pug, 64. 
Grey Pug, 64. 
Grey Streak, 131. 
Grctian Tortrix, 120. 
Ground Lackey, 39. 

H. 
Hadena, 99. 
Halia, 56. 
Hawk-Moths, 2. 
Hazel Tortrix, 117. 
Head and Thorax, 26. 
Heliophobus, 87. 
Hemithea, 56. 
Hepialus, 20. 
Himera, 50. 
Holmian Tortrix, 122. 
Hornet Moth, 15. 
Humming Bird Hawk-Moth, 1L 
Hypena, 111. 

I. 

Ichneumon Flies, 8. 
Incurvaria, 127. 



Kentish Glory, 42. 
Killing Moths, 8. 



Lappet Moth, 41. 

Larentia, 63. 

Large Emerald, 55. 

Large Footman, 28 

Large Marbled Tortrix, 116. 

Large Wainscot, 86. 

Large Yellow Underwing, 92 

Lasiocampa, 36. 

Lepidoptera, 1. 



index. 



151 



Leptogramma, 119. 
Lettered Tortrix, 119. 
Light Emerald, 47. 
bight Tussock Moth, 36. 
lame Hawk-Moth, 4. 
Liparis, 33. 
Lithosia, 23. 
Little Ermine, 130 
Little Waggoner, 133. 
Lobophora, 6o. 
Lobster Moth, 75. 
Lomaspilis, iv. 
Long-Horn, 128. 
Long-Winged Pearl, 114. 
Loopers, 45. 

Lunar Double Stripe, 109. 
Lunar Thorn, 50. 
Lychnis Moth, 96. 

M. 

Macroglossa, 11. 
Magpie, 53. 
Mamestra, 89. 
Marbled Coronet, 97. 
Metrocampa, 47. 
Melanippe, 66. 
Melanthia, 66. 
Mother of Pearl, 113. 
Mullein Moth, 102. 

N. 

Narrow-bordered Bee-Il&w*E 

Moth, 14. 
Nepticula, 133. 
Nets, 137. 
Nettle Tortrix, 123. 
Neuria, 8S. 
Noctua, 93. 
Noctuas, 82. 
Nonagria, 87. 
Notch-Wing, 128. 
Notodonta, 80. 
Nyssia, 53. 



Oak Beauty, 53. 
Oak-Eggar, 36. 
Odonestris, 59. 
Ophiodes, 109. 
Orange Moth, 47. 
Orgyia, 35. 
Ourapteryx, 46. 



Pale Brindled Beauty, 52. 



Peach Blossom, 84. 
Pea Green Moth, 113. 
Pearl Veneer, 115. 
Pebble Hook-Tip, 71. 
Pebble Prominent, 80. 
Penthina, 122. 
Peppered Moth, 54. 
Peronea, 121. 
Petasia, 76. 
Phantom, 136. 
Phigalia, 52 
Phlogophora, 93. 
Phyebenia, 114. 
Pine Beauty, 94. 
Pink-Barred Sallow, 96. 
Platypteryx, 71. 
Plusia, 103. 
Plutella, 131. 
Poplar Hawk Moth, 4. 
Potherb Moth, 100. 
Preserving Moths, 140. 
Privet Hawk-Moth, 9. 
Procris, 21. 
Pseudoterpna, 56. 
Pterophorus, 136. 
Pug Moths, 63. 
Purple Bar. 66. 
Purple Thorn, 50. 
Puss Moth, 71. 
Pygaesa, 77. 
Bolides, 113. 

R 

Rannoch Sprawler, 76. 
Red Underwing, 109. 
Rocket Moth, 131. 
Rumia, 48. 



Sallow Kitten, 74. 

Sallow Moth, 95. 

Sarcothripa, 116. 

Saturnia, 43. 

Scarce Forester, 21. 

Scarce Marveil du Jour, 85. 

Schcenobius, 115. 

Scorched-Wing, 48. 

Selenia, 50. 

Semesia, 123. 

Sericoris, 123. 

Sesia, 15. 

Setting Moths, 139. 

Shaded Pug, 64 

Silver Y, 105. 

Skeleton, 136. 

Small Argent and Sable, 6T, 



152 



INDEX. 



Small Brindled Beauty, 53. 

Small Brindled Pug, 64. 

Small Elephant Hawk Moth, 10. 

Smerinthus, 4. 

Snout, 111. 

Speckled Footman, 27. 

Sphinx, 9. 

Spilonota, 121 

Spilosoma, 32. 

Spotted Hawk Moth, 10. 

Sprawler, 77. 

Stauropus, 75. 

Sterrha. 56. 

Sterrhopteryx, 22. 

Stigmonota, 126. 

Stone Plume, 136. 

Streaked Veneer, 115. 

Sugaring, 138. 

Swallow-tailed Moth, 46. 

Sword Grass Moth, 101. 

T. 
Teras, 120. 
Thorn Moths, 49 
Thyatira, 84. 
Tiger Moth, 29. 
Tinea?, 127. 
Turf rices, 11C. 
Tortrix, 117. 
Toxocampa, 106. 
'■'r.iehea, 94. 



Trigonophora, 98. 
Triphsna, 91. 

Triple-Spot Black Moth, 127, 
Turnip Moth, 91. 
Twenty Plume, 136. 



V. 



V Moth, 56. 
Vapourer, 35. 
Vestal, 57. 

W. 

Wa?berian Tortrix, 123. 
White Plume, 136. 
White Prominent, SO. 
Wings of Moths, 24. 
Winter Moth, 61. 
Wood Leopard, 16. 

X. 

Xanthia, 95. 
Xanthosetia, 126. 
Xylinidse, 101. 

T. 
Tponomeuta, 130. 

11 
Zoiiscrft. IC. 



INDEX TO PLATES. 



i. 

1. Eyed Hawk-Mo* !i- 

2. Death's-Head. 

3. Small Elephant. 

4. Humming Bird. 

6. Bee Hawk-Moth, 
ti. Hornet Moth. 

7. Currant Clearv. i:ir: 



II. 

1. Wood Leopard. 

2. Goat Moth. 

3. Ghost Moth. 

4. Five-Spot Burnet 

5. Large Footman. 

6. Speckled Footman. 

III. 

1. Cinnabar Moth. 

2. Clouded Buff. 

3. Tiger Moth. 

4. Large Ermine. 

5. Brown-tailed Moth. 

6. Vapourer. 

7. Oak Eggar. 

IV 

1. Drinker. 

2. Fox Moth. 

3. Kentish Glory. 

4. Orange Moth. 

5. Swallow-tailed Moth. 
0. Lappet Moth. 



1. Feathered Thorn. 

2. Lunar Thorn. 
Scorched Wing. 

4. P»le Brindled Beauty 



no. 

5. Pale Brindled Beauty 

(female). 

6. Oak Beauty. 

7. Peppered Moth. 

8. Large Emerald. 

VL 

1. Magpie, or Cum:, • Moth 

2. Vestal. 

3. Clouded Border. 

4. Clouded Magpie. 

5. Green Carpet. 

6. Winter Moth. 

7. Purple Bar. 

8. Small Brindled Pug. 

9. Grey Pug. 

10. Early Tooth-Stripe. 

11. Argent and Sabb:. 

12. Chalk Carpet. 

VII. 

1. Pebble Hook-Tip. 

2. Scarce Kitten. 

3. Puss Moth. 

4. Kannoch Spraw! ■;- 

5. Buff-Tip. 

6. White Prominent. 

7. Lobster Moth. 

VIII. 

1. Scarce Marveil du .lour. 

2. Large Wainscot. 

3. Peach Blossom. 

4. Pink-ban'ed Sallow. 

5. Large Yellow Underwing 

6. Archer's Dart. 

7. Feathered Gothic. 

8. Broad Bordered Yellow 

Underwing. 



154 



INDEX TO PLATES. 



IX. 

FIO. 

1. Dotted Chestnut. 

2. Double Spotted Square 

Spot. 

3. Pine Beauty. 

4. Burnished Brass. 

5. Great Angle-Shades. 

6. Dark Crimson Underwing. 

7. Clifden Nonpareil. 



1. Snout. 

2. Black-Neck. 

3. Beautiful Hooklip 

4. Beautiful Double Stripe. 

5. Mother of Pearl. 

6. Long- Winged Pearl. 

7. Garden China Mark. 

8. Streaked Veneer. 

9. Pearl Veneer. 
10. Gigantic Veneer. 
11 Common Veneer. 



XI. 

FIO. 

1. Hazel Tortrix. 

2. Large Marbled Tortrix. 

3. Button Tortrix. 

4. Clouded Tortrix. 

5. Peronea variegana 

6. Grotian Tortrix. 

7. Lettered Tortrix. 

8. Penthina cynosbana. 

9. Notchwing. 

10. Peronea hastiana. 

11. Ephippiphora foneana. 

12. Nettle Tortrix. 

13. Brown-Cloak. 

14. Eupasciliahyliridellaaa. 

15. Xanthosetia hamana. 

16. Stigmonota regiana. 

XII. 

1. Little Waggoner. 

2. Golden Pigmy 

3. Golden Spot. 

4. White Plume 

5. Stone PI um 



INDEX OF DETAIL CUTS. 



A, page 23. 

Anatomy of Upper Wing of a 
Moth. 

B, page 25. 

Anatomy of Lower Wing of a 
Moth. 

C, page 26. 

Anatomy of Head and Thorax 
of a Moth. 

D, page 3. 

1. Larva of Eyed Hawk-Moth 

(Smerinthus ocellatus). 

2. Pupa of Deilephila. 

E, page 7. 

1. Larva of Death's-Head Moth 

{Acheron tia atropos). 

2. Pupa of ditto. 

3. Ichneumon-fly of ditto. 

F, page 13. 

1. Pupa of Humming-Bird 

Hawk-Moth (Macroglos -u 
stellatarum). 

2. Tongue of Burnet Moth 

(Anthrocera). 

3. Larva of Goat Moth (Cossus 

Hgniperda). 

G, page 17 

1. Wing of Ghost Moth 

(Hepialus). 

2. Antenna of Male European 

Moth (Saturnia). 

3. Antennae of Male Wood 

Leopard Moth (Zeuzera 
Ktculi). 



H, page 30. 

1. Larva of Tiger Moth (Oh*. 

Ionia caja). 

2. Antenna of Male Winter- 

Moth (Cheimatobia bru- 
mate). 

3. Larva of Cabbage Moth 

(Mamestra brassicce). 

I, page 117. 

1. Labial Palpus of Tortrix. 

2. Larva of ditto. 

3. Head of Little Ermine Moth 

(Yponomeuta padellus). 

4. Larva of Adela in its caa«. 

J, page 134. 

1. Larva of Golden Pigmy 

(Neptwula anomat&lla). 

2. Leaf of Bramble mined by 

ditto. 

3. Cocoon of doitt. 

K, page 138. 

1. Setting Board. 

2. Ring Net. 

3. Section of Setting Board. 

4. Clap Net. 

L, page 19. 

1. Cocoon of Burnet Moth 

(A nthrocera). 

2. Nest of Little Ermine 

(Yponomeuta padellus). 

3. Burrow of Wood Leopard 

Larva (Zeuzera cesculi). 

4. Larva of Large Chimney 

Sweep (Sterrhojiteryx 
nigricans) in its case. 



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